Аипова А.К. Сборник учебных текстов по развитию английской устной речи для студентов неязыковых специальностей - файл n1.doc

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Министерство образования и науки Республики Казахстан
Павлодарский государственный университет

им. С Торайгырова
Факультет филологии журналистики и искусства
Кафедра практического курса иностранных языков





УДК 811. 111 (075.8)

ББК 81.2 Англ-923

С 23
Рекомендовано к изданию учебно-методическим советом факультета филологии журналистики и искусства Павлодарского государственного университета

им. С. Торайгырова
Рецензент: кандидат филологических наук, доцент

Каирбаева А.К.

Составители: Аипова А.К., Смагулова Г.Ж., Нурсапинова М.К., Макаренко М.В., Макарихина И.М., Аскарова Л.Б., Кажикенова Г.М., Омарова Х.С., Мухамбетова Р.А., Авазбакиева Ф.Р., Кабжанова Г.А.

С 23 Сборник учебных текстов по развитию английской устной речи для студентов неязыковых специальностей / сост. Аипова А.К., Смагулова Г.Ж., Нурсапинова М.К., Макаренко М.В., Макарихина И.М., Аскарова Л.Б., Кажикенова Г.М., Омарова Х.С., Мухамбетова Р.А., Авазбакиева Ф.Р., Кабжанова Г. А. – Павлодар : Кереку, 2009. – 79 с.
Настоящий сборник учебных текстов по развитию английской устной речи предназначается для студентов всех специальностей, изучающих английский язык по программе неязыкового вуза.

Основная цель – достижение студентами практического овладения социально-политической речью, развивая поликультурную личность студента посредством этнокультурного, общечеловеческого и гуманитарного характера текстов.

УДК 81.2 Англ-923

ББК 811. 111 (075. 8)
© Аипова А.К., и др., 2009

© ПГУ им. С. Торайгырова, 2009
За достоверность материалов, грамматические и орфографические ошибки ответственность несут авторы и составители


1 About Myself.....................…………………………………… 4

2 My working day…..…………………………………………....9

3 Sport and Health……………………………………………….16

4 The system of education in Kazakhstan................ …………...23

5. Kazakhstan and English Speaking Countries ..........................33

6 My University. My future profession........................................51

7 Sphere of economics in Kazakhstan and in English Speaking Countries..............................…………........................................59

В настоящем сборнике представлены тексты аутентичного характера из различных источников (научной и художественной литературы).

Тексты содержат информацию страноведческого характера, направленные на развитие кругозора студентов. Изучение текстов способствует развитию умений чтения и говорения.

Основной целью является достижение студентами практического овладения социально-политической речью, развивая поликультурную личность студента посредством текстов этнокультурного, общечеловеческого и гуманитарного характера.

1 About Myself
1.1 People are different

It’s a well-known fact that in order to get to know another person we should learn more about his character. Read the following ideas about people’s features of character and say whom you would like to make friends with most of all.

Irene: Well, actually it’s very difficult to speak about yourself, but still, I’ll try. I think that I’m home-loving, kind and patient. I can get on with people well, because I always try to help them and they trust me. But sometimes I’m lazy – I don’t want to do anything. And I guess Steve doesn’t like it very much.

Steve: I am practical I think, because I always try to do the work that will help me in future. I’m also honest and I don’t like those people who tell lies me, because I always notice it and tell them about it. That’s why they say me that I’m tactless. I won’t argue, perhaps I am. What I don’t like about myself is that I’m sometimes bossy and Irene knows it very much. I am sorry.

Jane: Me? Ha! My mother says that I’m light-minded, because I do everything without thinking. I like to take risks, because I’m really risky. The feature of my character that I hate is that I’m undisciplined and my mother is always angry with me about it. But I’m really hard-working. I try to do everything when I’m asked, but sometimes I just forget about it.

Mark: I am very active, although my parents say that I am lazy, because I don’t like to do the things they want me to do. I think that I’m leading, because I want other people to follow me. They sometimes get offended with me and say I’m rude. I’m just very honest and I tell people what I think about them. It’s natural, I believe. And if they don’t agree with me, it’s their problem.

Nataly: I have a lot of friends. But I can say that most of all I enjoy my own company. My brother believes that I’m rather self-centered and live only for myself. Do you think it’s bad? I think that selfishness is not so bad, because all people are selfish.

The most important thing is being hard-working, thorough and ambitious. That’s why my friends say that I’m very reasonable and trustworthy.

Andrew: You might think that I boast, but I’d say that I’m really clever. I study a lot because I like it and I try to work hard to get good results. That’s why I think that I’m determined. I’m rather critical I’d say, because I like when everything is perfect. Do you still think that I boast?

Kate: I am very conservative, they say, and I completely agree with them. I never change anything in my life: ideas, principles, and friends. And the proverb “Old friends and old wines are the best» is my motto. I never go out, because I like to stay at home with my relatives. People say that I’m shy. Is it really bad?

George: I am very timid. I am always afraid that people will laugh at me. I am not very sociable, I prefer to spend time with animals in the Zoo where I work more than with people. I am also very patient, because animals need care and attention, I like them very much and they know it.
1.2 True Friend

Friendship is something that is very difficult to describe. It is like love - if you have never had it, you will never explain how it feels. But still it is very interesting to get to know what other people think about friendship. So we asked some of them the question “Does a true friend exist?” And here are the answers!

Andrew: I am sure that a true friend exists. And I am a lucky person because I have one. I’ve always dreamt about a person who would understand me, whom I could share my joys and sorrows with, whom I could rely on. And now I’ve got a real friend. Her name is Kate. She is the only person whom I trust. I often tell her my secrets and I’m sure she will never let me down or betray me. Kate’s very kind and sympathetic. She is also very considerate and devoted to me.

Frankly speaking, I’ve never thought that girls could be real friends. I thought that they liked to gossip and were not able to keep secrets. I’m glad now that I was wrong.

I also think that a person can have only one true friend, whom he/she can confide to. I don’t understand those people who say that they have a lot of friends. I believe they are not true friends - they are just good acquaintances, aren’t they?

Nataly: A true friend? I can’t understand what you mean. Will you tell me what a true friend is? Of course you can say that a true friend is a person who is generous and trustworthy. But, to tell you the truth, I’ve never met such people.

Our life is a very complicated thing. I’m grown-up enough to realize that it’s based on principles different to “A Friend in need is a friend indeed”. Today money rules the world. So if you are the wealthy person, who is able to help, then you will have lots of friends. I also think that friend is a person whom you can benefit from. If you need something - he will help you, if you need some money – he will give it to you. That is a real friendship.

Although my mum says that a true friend is a disinterested person, I won’t agree with her. I personally think that if you have a friend who is ready to help you any time and is able to do everything for your sake - use it, there won’t be any better chance. That is the thing that I always do. Don’t you think that I’m right?

Jane: I think that he does. I’d like to say even more: there should be more friends than one. I agree with the statement: “The more friends - the better» I’m a very sociable person and for me to find a friend is just a piece of cake. Frankly speaking, I am really surprised that for somebody to find a friend is very difficult. What can be easier that to be a friend for somebody? Just do something good for this person, say something pleasant to him, do him a favour and oops- he is your best friend because he owes you.

Perhaps somebody will say that it is not right, that a true friend should the only one, but I think that they are mistaken. We often quarrel with our friends or sometimes we part. If you have one friend but you still have some more - so, you are not alone. Don’t you think so?

Kate: A true friend exists, but I don’t mean anybody of peers. My true friend is my mother. She’s the only person I can rely on. You might think that I’m wrong but I’m not, I think. I have always thought that a true friend is a person who understands me perfectly, who’s always ready to help, whom I can trust and share my feelings with. And my mother is the only person I can have complete confidence in. I truly believed that they were my real friends but soon I realized that I was wrong. I had some problems with my studies and wanted them to help me, but they didn’t. My mother was the only person who helped me out.

Now she is the only friend I have. We are like sisters. I always tell her about my grief and pain and she often gives me a good piece of advice. She is very sincere and kind-hearted and I’m sure that she will never let me down. I can always bare out the secrets of my soul to her and I’m sure that she will never let them out. She is a model for me. She always supports me and understands me because she is grown and experienced. I don’t think that my peers possess such qualities. They are too young to understand the reality of life. Don’t you agree with me?
1.3 How to keep friendship forever?

Friendship is something that is very difficult to keep. Only those people who are truly devoted to each other, who are confident and faithful can stay friends for a long time. But still sometimes it is very difficult to answer this question and here are the results.

Steve: I can’t see what the problem is. If you’ve ever had a real friend you can always find the answer to this question. I’m sure that a true friendship is based on confidence, respect, kindness and understanding. That’s why I think that in order to keep friendship forever people should be always honest and attentive to each other. To be a good friend you should devote all your life to your friend. I even think that sometimes you should be able to do everything for your friend‘s sake, devote all your time to him and be always near-by. Perhaps, you don’t agree with me, but this is my idea about a true friendship, and what’s yours?

Irene: Sometimes I think that keeping friendship forever isn’t an easy matter, because very often friends use your friendship for their own needs. I personally think that having a best friend doesn’t mean devoting all your time to him, for whatever good he is, we sometimes need other people to communicate with. And if your friend gets offended in this case - I don’t think that he is a real friend, because he doesn’t understand you.

For me, being friends means doing a lot of things together, having much in common, enjoying each other’s company and having much fun together. But if you sometimes want to be alone or to go different place your friend should let you do it. If he doesn’t want you to do this then he is selfish – a feature of character that isn’t appropriate for a true friend.

So, I think that to keep friendship forever you should never forget about equality. Never forget that you don’t owe your best friend, so let him do what he wants and you’ll never be bored with your true friend.

Mark: Should we really keep friendship forever? I don’t think that we should, because I don’t know what we need it for. I believe that friendship shouldn’t last forever. Sometimes we just get bored with our friends. For me it’s very difficult to spend all my time with one person - my friend. Although we have much in common, sometimes we just don’t know what to do when we are together. I know everything about him and he knows perfectly me. There is nothing new and it’s not very interesting. What’s more, I think, if you can’t learn anything new about the person, you should find someone else to deal with.

Moreover, some people say that real friends should be able to forgive each other. Well, I don’t think that they are right. Why should I forgive a person who has let me down or betrayed me? The best way here is to part, otherwise I’ll always think about him as an unreliable man.

So, my idea about friendship is rather simple - we shouldn’t keep friendship forever and sacrifice our life to it. Life without changes is very boring, so change it as much as possible just to have fun and be happy.

1.4 Generation Gap

Many young people say that very often they have some problems with their parents. They think that their parents don’t understand them, they want to be more independent and to live alone, etc. Such a situation is usually called a “generation gap”. This is the situation of misunderstanding: children refuse to listen to their parents, while parents think that their children are too young to make their own decisions. Is it possible to solve the problem?

Kate: She is optimistic

Frankly speaking, I can hardly understand what people mean when they say “generation gap”. What is a generation gap? I know that it means misunderstanding between parents and children, adults and teenagers. But I cannot see what could be the problem. Parents love their children: they grow them up, care for them and support them. And children should pay them the same coin.

I love my parents, because they take care of me, they are kind and sympathetic; they are always ready to help me. I’m sure that they love me too. And where there is love there should be understanding. My parents never ignore me, they always support me and understand all my problems. I can’t live without their help and respect, and I know that they also need my attention. So, these are the only relations that are possible between parents and children, I think.

Jane: She has some problems

There is such a thing as a generation gap. And I know it for sure. I experience it every day. My parents never understand me. Whatever I say or do they always think that I’m wrong. They keep saying that I’m not grown-up enough to do what I want. That’s why they always tell me what to do and what to say; where to go and what people to make friends with. They don’t like my friends, my hobby and my style of life. They make me do things I don’t want to. They are always after me and it is very annoying.

My friends laugh at me very often and say that I am “mother’s darling”. They say that I depend on my parents and that I won’t be able to live on my own. I really wish I had more freedom.

I know that my parents love me and care for me, but I want them to treat me not as a child but as an adult person. I need more liberty, and I don’t want to depend on them. I’m 18 and I’m grown-up enough to make my own decisions. I just want them to respect my personality.

Andrew: He is in trouble

Many people say that only their relatives help and support them feel comfortable and cosy. I understand them and I wish I felt the same about my family. But unfortunately I can’t.

I love my parents very much, but I don’t think they feel the same. My parents never pay attention to me and they don’t understand my soul. It hurts very much when my parents ignore me. I never feel desirable at home. That’s why very often I think about leaving them. I know that many children leave their homes because of some terrible problems in their families - a step-parent, a parent with alcohol problems or a violent parent. In comparison with them I should be a lucky person, because we don’t have such problems in my family.

My parents let me do whatever I want. I’m free and I should be happy. But I don’t feel my parents’ love and care: the things that I long for. So, can you say that I’m a happy person?
2 My working day
2.1 Domestic Chores

A comfortable home makes our everyday life and work easier and more pleasant. And what should you do to make your home comfortable? Perhaps the first thing is to keep it clean and tidy. If you haven’t done your room, your mother may say to you, “Go and do your room!”

Domestic chores are numerous. You must air the rooms, wash or sweep the floor, clear the table after meals. What else can you do about the house? You can polish the floor or the furniture; clean the carpets with the vacuum-cleaner.

Most of the cooking in your family is probably done by your mother or grandmother, but you can help them by laying the table and clearing it after meals, and washing the dishes up.

On washing-day you can also help your mother. If your washing is sent to the laundry, you can take it there and fetch it when it’s ready.

If you have pets at home, you must take care of them.

Here are teenagers’ opinions on their attitude to domestic chores.

“I get some week pocket money, but most of my friends get much more. When I ask my Mum and Dad for more, they say I can have more if I help about the house, but I don’t see why I should. I think it’s not mine. What do you think?”

“On Fridays I usually clean my room which is in terrible mess by the end of a week. It is awfully boring, but it’s my duty.”

“If you have a dog, it’s usually great fun, but you have to take him for a walk twice a day. Besides you have to wash him sometimes. I have pets that are exotic, but easy to keep. They are insects. I feed my insects on leaves which I get in my garden. They are always clean, and I don’t have to take them for a walk!”

2.2 My attitude to homework

When I get from school what do I do? Instead of getting on with my personal interests, like playing computer games or designing programmes or models, I have to do a huge mountain of homework set by our teachers to fill our outside school hours.

Teachers and parents could spend years arguing that doing homework develops the pupils’ ability to work without assistance, or that additional work could help us complete our education successfully.

But I believe, in many subjects, homework is totally unnecessary and find that it doesn’t do me any good. I think, it’s really stupid to copy from textbook because someone else has already taken the time and effort to write this book, and it will remain with me until I leave the school year. So what the point of duplicating it? It’s reinventing the wheel! While copying things, it’s not easy to take in what you are taking down.

However, I believe, homework is essential in learning languages. New things are learnt at school, and then they have to be practiced in writing. I agree that some phrases have to be learnt by heart. From this, the teacher can comment on what has been taken in by the pupils and can be improved.

If we could get rid of unnecessary home work, we would have more time to take up hobbies and interests which could make us more enthusiastic and interesting.
2.3 Kinds of activities

There are plenty of other kinds of activities, such as travelling, visiting historical places, babysitting, delivering newspapers, putting together puzzles, reading, going to different museums, skateboarding, going fishing, hitchhiking, shopping, helping people in need, joining a computer club and others. We can say “So many teens; so many kinds of activities.”

Now some words about me. I am fifteen and I am a computer addict. I am fond of communication with other teens. That’s why I have a lot of friends in my and other countries. We send messages from one computer to another using e-mail; we have on-line conversations. I am a member of the computing club and I spend much time there. Of course, it’s rather expensive, but my parents understand me and give me enough money to pay for my computer club.

And I think that my hobby will be useful in my future profession. Besides, I spend my free time in the sport club. I go in for kung fu. Recently films about kung fu have become very popular in Russia. This fighting itself is a great art, the result of many years of hard work and self-discipline. The man who made kung fu films famous was Bruce Lee. He used fists, elbows, feet (never weapons) and moved as fast as lightning. I am rather good at kung fu now, but I never use my skills to hurt anybody, unless it is absolutely necessary. Now people know what Kung Fu is, and I think it may become a sport of the future, because it develops up your personality, will and nobility.
2.4 Different styles of music

Young people are fond of different styles of music. What kinds are popular now? What kind of music do you like? Why? Can you think of a day without music? We can hear music everywhere: in the streets and at home, over the radio and on TV, in the shops and in the parks. People all over the world are fond of music. They listen to music, they dance to music, and they learn to play musical instruments. But what is music? Specialists explain that music isn’t only a combination of pleasant sounds. It is an art which reflects life. There are a lot of different kinds of music. Some of them appeared long ago, and some are modern. For example, folk music appeared long ago, but it is still alive. Folk songs are very tuneful and pleasant to listen to. Classical music is often associated with the music of the past. However, this style also includes music being written now, and we may speak of modern classical music. Rap is a modern musical style where the singer speaks or shouts the words in time to music with a steady beat.

Great Britain has produced more popular music stars than any other country. Over the last 30 years rock and pop music have been very popular in Britain. The Beatles, with their style of singing, eloquent and exciting, is still one of the most popular groups. British groups often set new trends in music. New styles, groups and singers continue to appear.

2.5 My day off

Yesterday it was Sunday, that’s why my last day off was not long ago and I remember it quite well. I always try to do my best to make my holidays really exciting, because we have only few days in a week for relaxation and rest. Yesterday my friends and I agreed to meet at my place. First we watched a very interesting TV show “What? Where? When?” Then we went took a videocassette and watched an outstanding movie “The Independence Day”. This is a story about strangers from the other planets that were trying to conquer the whole Earth and about the struggle against them. The movie is full of visual effects and computer graphics that takes your breath and makes you admire the modern technologies in the cinema. I wish our studios and directors made such movies. “The Independence Day” can be added to the genius pieces of modern art – that is my opinion. Having watched the film, we decided that it was a time to go outside. The first place we went to was the sports ground. Though it was rather cold, we put on warm clothes and had fun. Almost all day long we played soccer and basketball. As for me, I like weekends and holidays, as the majority of other people. And I like telling about my holidays. It’s dull to listen about the ordinary working day, how do you think? Every working day looks like another, but every weekend is different from the other. During the weekend we have an opportunity of enjoying the life and having rest.

2.6 The working day of an engineer

One of my friends, Dmitry Shevelyov, lives in Vladivostok now though he was born in Nakhodka. Some years ago he graduated from the one of our institutions and became an engineer. Now he lives near his office. He usually walks there. He works on weekdays. I can’t say that he work hard, but all his mates like him because he is a good mixer or, as you may say, he is a very sociable person. He doesn’t work on Saturday and Sunday. His working day usually lasts for eight hours. His duties are to answer all incoming letters and calls, to meet with different specialists, to help young engineers. He often tells me that he likes his job. I usually meet him after the work and we speak about life. He is very glad that he found such work where he can show all his talents. Though there is a difference between our ages, we have much in common. He is among my best friends. By the way, my friend knows English rather well. It helps him a lot as every year various foreign delegations come to their office. These delegations change different technologies with our specialists and discuss many problems. All foreigners consider Shevelyov to be the best translator in the company.

2.7 Traveling by air Many people devote their lives to traveling. They can travel by car, by sea, by train, and by air. Traveling by air is usually preferred by people who haven’t got much time and they must get to another city, country or continent quickly. Nowadays there are a lot of businessmen who have to communicate with people from other countries. Each of us has a lot of relatives and friends. Some of them live in other countries. For example you live in Russia, Moscow and you have some relatives in France or in Britain. You certainly can get to GB by train, and by sea but it will take you a lot of time. It would be easier if you choose a plane. There are some rules in airport which every passenger must follow. It is necessary to arrive at the airport 2 hours before departure time. They must register their tickets, weigh and register the luggage. Most airports have at least 2 classes of travel, first class and economy class, which is cheaper. Each passenger of more than 2 years of age has free luggage allowance. Generally this limit is 20 kg for economy class passengers and 30 kg for the first class passengers and if you have some extra luggage must pay for it. At first you go through the Customs, there you must fill in the customs declaration before you talk to the customs officer. He may ask routine questions any passenger: about declaring the things, spirits, tobacco, presents. Then you go to the check - in counter where your ticket is looked at, you are given luggage tags and boarding passes. The next formality is filling in the immigration form and going through passport control. The form has to be filled in block letters. You write your name, nationality, permanent address and the purpose of your trip. After fulfilling all these formalities you go to the departure lounge where you can have a snack, read a paper, buy something in the duty-free shop and wait for the announcement to board the plane.

2.8 Traveling by train

The first railway in Russia was opened in 1837 and since that time people have covered millions of kilometers traveling from one part of the country to another by train. Passenger trains carry people, goods trains carry goods, and mail trains carry passengers and mail. In Britain and in America there are also special coaches attached to some trains, called Traveling Post Offices. In these coaches people sort letters and parcels while the train runs from one station to another. Long-distance trains are fast trains. Local trains make all the stops, and you can get on or off a local train at a very small station, even if it is only a platform.

If you are going to a distant place, a sleeping compartment is very comfortable; a reserved seat for a day journey is good. Local trains have carriages with wooden seats as passengers make only short trips.

After a long-distance train starts, the passengers often begin to talk

to each other. They ask questions about how far they are going and whether they are traveling on business, or going to visit relatives, or going to a rest home. They talk about various things to pass the time.
2.9 British leisure

How do British people spend their time when they are not actually working? Leisure time of British people isn’t very much organized. They might watch TV for instance. Television is the most popular entertainment in many countries. Statistics says that we spend an average of 25 hours a week watching it or at least keeping it switched on. Theatre, opera and ballet, sorry to say, are almost exclusively the pleasures of the educated middle class. The author of the book «Understanding Britain» Caren Hewitt convinced that people who are deprived of the great works of art suffer a diminishment of spirit no matter whether they are intellectuals, blue-collar or white collar and so forth.

Private leisure is characterized by the national enthusiasm for

gardening. About 44% of the population claim to spend time gardening. In fact they don’t need to grow vegetables, but home grown fruit and vegetables taste much better than those in shops, which have been grown commercially. They also grow flowers and have a passion for lawns of grass which stay green throughout the year.

The other popular home-based activity is «D-I-Y» or «Do-It-

Yourself». It means improvement of one’s home by decorating, making

furniture, fitting in shelves, cupboards, etc. There are excellent stores (such as hardware stores), which supply the materials and tools, and books with detailed advice are everywhere on sale. Women more concentrate on needlework – sewing curtains and cushions as well as clothes. About half the women in the country spend time on needlework or knitting.

It is extremely difficult to decide how important books are for in the lives of the British citizens. There are well-stocked shops and a good public library service. Books are available, brightly colored, cheerfully designed – and expensive. However there is an unquestionable loss when the attractions of television and videos have reduced the enthusiasm for reading, which is for many people just glancing at a newspaper. And no wonder! TV dramas and documentaries, cultural and scientific programmes 119 and coverage of the world’s news are excellent in general, by world standards. And of course, there is a lighter entertainment – games, family comedies, celebrity shows, soap operas and so on.

Music is another way of spending time. People listen to pop and rock music on the radio, on records and tapes, at home and in public places.

Music magazines persuade teenagers to buy new and new records with the only purpose to make money. That is why cultivating an individual taste becomes very difficult, and cultivating a serious musical taste is extremely difficult. People often keep on spending money to catch up with what is popular. Some people are interested in music making and might play in amateur or professional orchestras or sing in choirs.

Some words should be said about holidays. Summer holidays are the time to spend as a couple or a family. It may just be like visiting friends, or hiring a caravan on the seashore, or camping. You can walk, explore mountains and streams, and take picnics on boating expeditions on lakes, and visit castles, caves and historic sites. This is the way the majority spends their time. Of course, there are minorities. They may join various clubs, or just relax each evening in pubs drinking, or do something else.

People are free in their choice as they should be. It may be good or bad, but the reality is like this and you know, there are people and people.

2.10 Marie's story

My name is Marie and I started with Northants Careforce in June 2007. I was very nervous to start with; I didn’t know anything about caring or looking after clients, as I had no previous experience. On initial induction there was a lot of information for me to learn, but my fellow colleagues and I worked together and helped each other. The training made more sense once I was in the community putting it into practice. I also had help and support from colleagues that had experience during my shadowing. I also learnt a lot when going out on double up calls. Originally I wasn’t sure whether I would like the job at first, but the more I went to see my clients the more I liked my job and the more confident I became. I found it nice getting to know my clients and wish now I had chosen to do this work a long time ago. I have now passed my NVQ level 2 in Health and Social Care, which I’m very pleased about. I got a lot of support when required from my assessor and from Pam the Care force trainer. If anyone is at all nervous or feels without experience they wouldn’t be able to do this job, I am living proof that anything is possible and with support you can achieve anything you want to.

2.11 Curious Stamp Mistakes

The first stamp in the world was an English one. It was made in 1840 to pay the postage on letters going to different parts of the country. Since that time people began to use stamps and in the course of time started collecting them. Stamps are always interesting to collect because they bear views of the countries they come from; pictures of animals and birds living in jungles or on far-away islands; pictures showing the people of different countries, dressed in their national costumes.

Stamp-collection gives many-sided information about history, geography and many other subjects. Sometimes stamps are issued with unexpected mistakes which are seen only if one knows geography, history, music and many other things as well. The St. Kitts and Nevis stamp, issued in 1903, shows Christopher Columbus looking through a telescope, an instrument which was unknown in his days.

The Newfoundland stamp, issued in 1886, shows a seal on ice-floe. It looks like any other seal till you look at its front legs and find that it has feet instead of flippers. For a long time collectors who had knowledge of zoology thought that this was another stamp mistake. However it was discovered that the great Grey Seal of Newfound really has forefeet instead of flippers. The artist had been right after all.

On a German stamp, issued in 1956 in commemoration of the composer Schumann, the music printed on the stamp was not written by Schumann. It was written by another German composer Schubert. Stamp-collectors knowing music well saw the mistake at once. The post-offices stopped selling the stamp and today one can be found only in a few collections.
3 Sport and Health
3.1 Sport and Health

Sport is very popular. However, the number of peo­ple who take part in sport is quite small. The most popular specta­tor sports are football, ice-hockey, volleyball, boxing and swimming. In recent years tennis and basket­ball have become rather popular.

A lot of people never exercise. They often eat unhealthy food as well. These are the people that wait until they get sick before they start to think about their health. In our family we believe that preventing sickness is better than trying to cure it after you get sick. My mo­ther once told me that there were three ways to prevent illness. They are: 1) eating well; 2) avoiding stress; and 3) exercising regularly.

Sports — individual sports and team sports are a big part of my life. I especially like to play team sports, because I enjoy working together with others toward a common goal. I play football eve­ry day after school. I would like to play sports in a foreign country some day. I would really like to represent my country internati­onally.

1 also enjoys staying fit with my family. At home we eat fresh fruit and vegetables every day. We don't smoke or drink alcohol. We all love to swim and play tennis. My brother and I ride our bicy­cles to and from school every day. Not only is bicycle-riding good exercise, but it also helps to clear my head and relieve stress after a long day. I usually go for a jog on Saturday mornings. Jogging and swimming are particularly good for the heart and lungs. On Sun­days I practice my favourite sport of all — sleeping!
3.2 Drugs

In facts, all medicines are drugs. You take drugs for your headache or your asthma. But you need to remember that not all drugs are medicines. Alcohol is a drug, and nicotine is a drug. There are many drugs that do you no good at all.

There's nothing wrong with medicinal drugs if they're used properly. The trouble is, some people use them wrongly and make themselves ill. Most of the drugs are illegal, but some are ordinary medical substances that people use in the wrong way.

People take drugs because they think they make them feel better. Young people are often introduced to drug-taking by their friends.

Many users take drugs to escape from a life that may seem too hard to bear. Drugs may seem the only answer, but they are no answer at all. They simply make the problem worse.

Depending on the type and strength of the drug, all drug-abusers are in danger of developing side effects. Drugs can bring on confusion and frightening hallucinations and cause unbalan­ced emotions or more serious mental disorders.

First-time heroin users are sometimes violently sick. Cocaine, even in small amounts, can cause sudden death in some young people, due to heartbeat irregula­rities. Children born to drug-addicted parents can be badly affected.

Regular users may become constipated and girls can miss their periods. Some drugs can slow, even stop the breathing' process, and if someone overdoses accidentally they may become unconscious or even die.

People who start taking drugs are unlikely to do so for long without being found out. Symptoms of even light drag use are drowsiness, moodiness, loss of appetite and, almost inevitably, a high level of deceit.

First there's the evidence to hide, but second, drugs are expensive and few young people are able to find the money they need from their allowance alone. Almost inevitably, needing money to pay for drugs leads to crime.
3.3 AIDS

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a sickness that attacks the body's natural system against disease. AIDS itself doesn't kill, but because the body's defense system is damaged, the patient has a reduced ability to fight off many other diseases, including flu or the common cold.

It has been reported that about 10 million people worldwide may have been infected by the virus that causes AIDS. It is estimated that about 350 thousand people have the disease and that another million (!) may get it within the next five years. Africa and South America are the continents where AIDS is most rampant, although in the States alone about 50,000 people have already died of AIDS.

So far there is no cure for AIDS. We know that AIDS is caused by a virus which invades healthy cells, including the white blood cells that are part of our defense system. The virus takes control of the healthy cells genetic material and forces the cell to make a copy of the virus. The cell then dies and the multiplied virus moves on to invade and kill other healthy cells. The AIDS virus can be passed on sexually or by sharing needles used to inject drugs. It also can be passed in blood products or from a pregnant woman with AIDS to her baby.

Many stories about the spread of AIDS are false. One cannot get AIDS by working with someone who's got it or by going to the same school, or by touching objects belonging to or touched by an infected person. Nobody caring for an AIDS patient has developed AIDS and, since there is no cure for it at present, be as helpful and understanding as possible to those suffering from this terrible disease.
3.4 Smoking

Smoking is very danger­ous. Most young people smoke, because their friends, pressure them to do so. They may be copying their parents who smoke, or other adults they respect. At one time this would have been accepted as normal. But in the past 30 years attitude about smoking have changes. Smoking is now banned in many places so that other people don't have to breathe in smokers' shocking tobacco smoke.

Passive smoking, when you are breathing someone else smoke, can damage your health just like smoking can. Smoking becomes addictive very quickly, and it's one of the hardest habits to break.

Take 1000 young people who smoke 20 cigarettes a day. A quarter of them will die from a disease caused by smoking. That’s 250 lives wasted! Only six of those 1000 teenagers will die in road accidents. So what is it in cigarette smoke that is harmful? A chemical called nicotine is a substance that causes addiction. It is a stimulant that increases the pulse rate and a rise in the bloods, pressure. Cigarette smoke also contains tar - a major factor for causing cancer.

Chronic bronchitis occurs when tar and mucus damage the air sacks in the lungs. The sufferer has a bad cough which is worse in the mornings, and may get breathless easily. Gases in cigarette smoke increase your blood pressure and pulse rate. This can contribute to heart disease. Smokers as twice as non-smokers are likely to have heart trouble.

Smokeless tobacco that is chewed rather than smoked is also harmful causing mouth sores, damage to teeth and cancer. If you've ever watched an adult try to give up smoking, you know how hard it can be. It's easier, healthier and cheaper never to start.

Facts about smoking

- The smell of smoke on your breath and clothes will put people off.

- Someone who smokes 15 cigarettes a day can forget six to nine years of their life.

- You're burning a great deal of money. In many countries cigarettes are heavily taxed.

- Your skin will wrinkle faster and deeper than that of a non-smoker.

- Females who smoke heavily may wrinkle like a woman 20 years older in age.
3.5 Alcohol

Another poison of many young people is alcohol. Remem­ber, alcohol is a drug. It can make you sick, and you can become addicted to it. It's a very common form of drug abuse among teenagers. Don't let anyone at a party pressure you into drinking if you don't want to, especially if you're legally under age.

For years we have been told not to drive after we have drunk alcohol, which weakens our sense and clouds our judgment. And yet people still do. Young people, who are drunk are less likely to wear their seat belts, and are less experienced when a problem occurs. The alcohol makes them think they are brilliant drivers and can take risks without getting hurt. But, more importantly, they become a risk to other drivers and pedestrians - potential killers. If they do have an accident, the alcohol in their body will make treatment of an injury more difficult.

Alcohol drinks are made up chiefly of water and ethanol, which is an alcohol produced by fermenting fruits, vegetables or grain. Beer is about one part ethanol to 20 parts water. Wine is stronger, and spirits are about half ethanol and half water.

Alcohol is a drug. In fact, it is a mild poison. It is absorbed quickly into the bloodstream, within four or 10 minutes of being drunk. Absorption is slower if there's food in the stomach. Once inside the body it passes through the bloodstream to the liver, where poisons are digested but the liver can only process 28 grams of pure alcohol each hour.

This is a small amount - just over half a glass of beer. Anything else you drink is pumped round the body while it waits its turn to enter the liver.

When alcohol reaches your brain, you may immediately feel more relaxed and light-hearted. You may feel you can do crazy things. But after two or three drinks, your actions are clumsy and your speech is slurred. If you over-drink, you might suffer from double vision and loss of balance, even fall unconscious, hangover.
3.6 Meat: to eat or not to eat?

However, there is no easy answer to the question. Some people say meat is bad for us; others claim meat is essential for our health. So where does the truth lie?

Experts say red meat, such as veal, can be harmful: if you eat a lot of it, you may develop heart problems. White meat, such as pork or chicken, is not as bad, according to the experts. Furthermore, it is argued by anti-meat-eating groups that if more people switched to a vegetarian diet, there would be less starvation in the world.

In the case of children, doctors agree that they need a balanced diet to help them grow. Meat provides a range of proteins and vitamins that are essential for a healthy body. Finally, although I personally don't eat meat very often, many people think it is the most enjoyable and satisfying type of food there is.

Perhaps a reasonable compromise would be to say, 'Yes, eat meat - but don't overdo it!'
3.7 The origins of soccer

There are lots of stories about how soccer-like games have been played all over the world and at different times in history.

About 10,000 years ago Romans played ball games, they played for exer­cise. Britain was invaded by Rome, and the game — playing Roman soldiers probably brought soccerlike games with them and may have introduced them to people living in Britain. In any case, football was played in Britain for over 1,000 years. Many kings and queens tried to ban it because football took time away from soldierly activities, such as archery.

Despite being illegal in Britain until the 18th century, the English created rules for the game in 1863.

The Pilgrims could have been met on the beach at Plymouth by soccer — playing American Indians! By the time the Pilgrims arrived in 1620, Indians in New England had been playing a game called, "gather to play football", for a while. This game looked a lot like modern soccer: it was played entirely with the legs and the feet, and the object was to cross the opponent's goal line with the ball. The ball, however was small, about 2 to 4 inches in diameter, and was made of wood, or deerskin stuffed with leaves. In 1634 English set­tlers wrote about the game, which reminded them of English football, and noted that play could involve anywhere from 30 to 1,000 players on a mile-long field!
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