Куликова Н.В., Мельник Л.А., Зенкевич Е.Б. Английский для студентов психологических факультетов - файл n1.docКуликова Н.В., Мельник Л.А., Зенкевич Е.Б. Английский для студентов психологических факультетов
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I. Read the text paying attention to the logical breaks.
Psychology,/ the science of mind and behavior,/ emerged in the nineteenth century.// The very idea of this new science/ would have been unimaginable / without earlier developments in philosophy.//
Once psychology was established as an area of scientific inquiry,/ it was shaped by the influences of several different perspectives.// Each perspective / has been based on a different notion of what psychology's focus should be,/ and each has made a unique contribution.// For example,/ Gestalt psychology proposed / that the mind cannot be understood as a collection of elements / but must be seen in terms of organized wholes.// Behaviorism excluded the mind from study altogether / because, unlike behavior,/ the mind cannot be observed directly.
The many influences in psychology's past / have helped to make psychology / a very diverse field today.// That diversity is evident / not only in the content of academic psychology,/ but also in the many professional endeavors /psychologists engage in.//II. 1. Understanding complicated sentences.
What makes a text difficult to understand?
It is not always because the ideas are difficult to follow, or because the writer uses unusual words. Sometimes a very simple argument or descriptions can become much more difficult to read just because of the way the sentences are constructed. Look at these four sentences:
There were some people sitting at the next table.
Mary was busily engaged (занята) in giving her opinion of what was wrong with them.
John told Mary that he was going to leave the Conference Hall if she went on talking like that.
He was becoming more and more embarrassed (смущенный) Now look at a different way of presenting the same facts:
John, who was becoming more and more embarrassed, told Mary, who was busily engaged in giving her opinion of what was wrong with the people sitting at the next table, that if she went on talking like that he was going to leave the Conference Hall.
What exactly has happened? One part of the third sentence (John told Mary that he was going to leave the Conference Hall) has been used as a sort of box, and everything else has been put inside it. The different parts of the «box» sentence (John, told Mary, that, and he was going to leave the Conference Hall) have been separated from each other, so that it is not easy at first to see the connections between them, and the sentence becomes harder to follow.