Шпаргалки по фонетике - файл n1.doc

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1. Phonetics as a science. Two main divisions of phonetics. The stages of human speech. Three branches of phonetics.

Phonetics studies the sound system of the language. That is segmental phonemes, word stress, syllabic (слоговый) structure and intonation. The first phoneticians were Indians.

Phonetics has two main divisions:

- Study of the sound patterns of language

- Study of substance (суть)

Stages of human speech are:

1. Sociological

2. Physiological

3. Reception (восприятие)

4. Transmission (перенос)

5. Interpretation (истолкование)

The branch(отрасль) of phonetics that studies the way is called articulator phonetics.

Acoustic phonetics studies the air vibrates between the speaker mouth and the listening ear.

Auditory (слуховой) phonetics is concerned with speech perception: How sound is received by the inner ear and perceived (воспринят) by the brain.
2. Phonology and its subject matter (предмет обсуждения). Standard English (RP).

The branch of phonetics that studies the linguistic function of consonant and vowel sounds, syllabic structure, word accent (произношение) and prosodic pitches, stress and tempo is called phonology.

An important part of phonology is studying which sounds are distinctive (различительный) units within a language. And phonology studies how sounds alternate.

Received Pronunciation (or RP) is a special accent - a regionally neutral accent that is used as a standard for broadcasting (радио- и телевещание) and some other kinds of public speaking. It is not fixed - you can hear forms of RP in historical broadcasts, such as newsreel (кинохроника) films from the Second World War. Queen Elizabeth II has an accent close to the RP of her own childhood, but not very close to the RP of the 21st century.

RP excites powerful feelings of admiration and repulsion. Some see it as a standard or the correct form of spoken English, while others see its use (in broadcasting, say) as an affront (публичное оскорбление) to the dignity(достоинство) of their own region. Its merit (достоинство) lies in its being more widely understood by a national and international audience than any regional accent. Non-native speakers often want to learn RP, rather than a regional accent of English. RP exists but no-one is compelled(принуждать) to use it. But if we see it as a reference point, we can decide how far we want to use the sounds of our region where these differ from the RP standard.

3.The organs of speech and their work. The active and passive organs of speech.

Organs of speech are: nasal cavity (полость носа), lips, teeth, alveolar ridge, ‘larynx(гортань), palate (soft and hard), uvula(язычок), tongue (tip, blade(передняя часть), front, back), epiglottis(надгортанник), pharynx(глотка), vocal cords, and tra’chea(трахея).

The air stream released by the lungs goes through the wind­pipe (дыхательное горло) and comes to the larynx, which contains the vocal cords. The vocal cords are two elastic folds (изгибы) which may be kept apart or brought together (сведены вместе). The opening between them is called the glottis (голосовая щель). If the tense(напряженный) vocal cords are brought together, the air stream forcing an opening makes them vibrate and we hear some voice.

On coming out of the larynx the air stream passes through the pharynx.

The pharyngeal(глоточный) cavity extends(простирается) from the top of the larynx to the soft palate, which directs the air stream either to the mouth or nasal cavities, which function as the principal resonators.

The soft palate is the furthest part of the palate from the teeth. Most of the palate is hard. This hard and fixed part of the palate is divided into two sections: the hard palate (the highest part of the palate) and the teeth ridge or alveolar ridge.

The most important organ of speech is the tongue. Pho­neticians divide the tongue into four sections, the part which lies opposite the soft palate is called the back of the tongue; the part facing the hard palate is called the front; the one lying under the teeth ridge is known as the blade and its extremity the t i p .

The lips can take up various positions as well. They can be brought firmly together or kept apart neutral, rounded, or pro­truded (высунуты) forward.

Active organs of speech are movable and taking an active part in a sound formation:

  1. Vocal cords which produce voice

  2. The tongue which is the most flexible(гибкий) movable organ

  3. The lips affective very considerably(значительно) the shape of the mouth cavity

  4. The soft palate with the uvula directing the stream of air either to the mouth or to the nasal cavity

  5. The back wall of the faring contracted for some sounds

  6. The lower jaw (нижняя челюсть) which movement controls the gap(промежуток) between the teeth and also the disposition of the lips

  7. The lungs air for sounds

Passive organs of speech:

  1. the teeth

  2. the teeth ridge or alveolar ridge

  3. the hard palate

  4. the walls of the resonators

4. The International Phonetic Alphabet (transcription)

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation (условные обозначения) based on the Latin alphabet, devised (разработанный) by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by linguists, speech pathologists (дефектологи) and therapists, foreign language teachers and students, singers, actors, lexicographers, and translators.

The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are distinctive(различительны) in spoken language: phonemes, intonation, and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech such as tooth-gnashing(скрежет зубов), lisping (сигматизм), and sounds made with a cleft palate(волчья пасть), an extended(распространенный) set of symbols called the Extended IPA is used.

The International Phonetic Alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, using as few non-Latin forms as possible. The Association created the IPA so that the sound values of most consonants taken from the Latin alphabet would correspond to “international usage”.

Transcription is accent of symbols representing speech sounds.

The first type of notation is the broad of phonemic notation (фонематическая транскрипция); it provides special symbols for all phonemes of a language.

The second type of the allophonic transcription, suggests special symbols including some information about articulator activity of particular allophonic features.

The first of broad transcription was introduced by D. Jones. He realized the difference between sounds (sit – seat). Another type of broad transcription was introduced by Vasiliev.

5.Letters and sounds. Sounds and phonemes. Vowels and consonants.

Letters and sounds must never be mixed up. Letters are written, sounds are spoken. It very useful to have written letters to remind us of corresponding sounds, but this is all they do. They cannot make us pronounce sounds which we don’t already know; they simply remind us. In ordinary English spelling is not always easy to know what sounds the letters stand for. We have 24 consonants and 20 vowels to consider.

Speech sounds are grouped into language units called phonemes. A phoneme may be thought of as the smallest contrastive language unit which exists in the speech of all people be­longing to the same language community in the form of speech sounds and may bring about a change of meaning.

The phoneme is realized in speech in the material form of speech sounds of different type. Various speech realizations of the phoneme are called its allophones.

The organs of speech are capable of uttering many different kinds of sounds. From the practical point of view it is convenient to distinguish two types of speech sounds: vowels and conso­nants. Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any ob­struction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. In the articulation of consonants a kind of noise producing obstruction is formed in the supra-glottal cav­ities. Such sounds may be pronounced with or without vocal cords vibration.
6.Principles of classification of English consonants.

Consonants are made with air stream that meets an obstruc­tion in the mouth or nasal cavities. That is why in the produc­tion of consonant sounds there is a certain degree of noise.

Consonants are the bones of a word and give it its basic shape. English accents differ mainly in vowels, the consonants are more or less the same wherever English is spoken. So if your vowels are not perfect you may still be understood by the listen­er, but if the consonants are imperfect there may be some misun­derstanding.

The sentence "W-l y- -nv-t- m-1- th- p-t-?" "Will you invite me to the party?" is easy for understanding even if all the vowel letters would be left out. But if we leave all the consonant letters out : "-i- -ou i—i-e -e -o —e -a-y" it is impossible to make any sense out of it.

On the articulatory level the consonants change:

  1. In the degree of noise.

  2. In the manner of articulation.

  3. In the place of articulation.

7.Classification of English consonants according to the manner of articulation. Mistakes typical of Russian learners of English and way of correcting them.

The manner of articulation of consonants is determined by the type of obstruction. The obstructions may be complete, in­complete and momentary. When the obstruction is complete the organs of speech are in contact and the air stream meets a clo­sure in the mouth or nasal cavities as in the production of the English [p, b, t, d, k, g, tf, dj, m , n, n] .

In case of an incomplete obstruction the active organ of .speech moves towards the point of articulation and the air stream goes through the narrowing between them as in the production of the English [f, v, s, z, d, h, w, l, r, j] and the Rus­sian [ф, ф']. Momentary obstructions are formed in the production of the Russian sono­rants [p, p'] when the tip of the tongue taps quickly several times against the teeth ridge.

According to the manner of articulation consonants may be of four groups:

  1. Occlusive.

  2. Constrictive.

  3. Occlusive-constrictive (affricates).

  4. Rolled.

1.Occlusive consonants are sounds in the production which the air stream meets a complete obstruction in mouth.

Occlusive voiced consonants are: the English [b, d, g].

Occlusive voiceless consonants are: the English [p, t, k|.

2.Constrictive consonants are those in the production of which the air stream meets an incomplete obstruction in the resonator, so the air passage is constricted. Both noise consonants and sonorants may be constrictive.

Constrictive noise consonants are called fricatives.

The English fricatives: [f, v, s, z, h].

The English voiced fricatives: [v, d, z, 3].

The English voiceless fricatives: [f, s, h].

3.Occlusive-constrictive consonants or affricates are noise consonant sounds produced with a complete obstruction which is slowly released and the air escapes from the mouth with some friction. There are only two occlusive-constrictives in English: [tf,dz] . The English [dz] is voiced and weak; [tf] is voiceless and strong .

4.Rolled consonants are sounds pronounced with periodical momentary obstructions when the tip of the tongue taps quickly several times against the teeth ridge and vibrates in the air stream. (They are the Russian [p, p']).
8.Classification of English consonants according to the place of articulation. Mistakes typical of Russian learners of English and way of correcting them.

The place of articulation is determined by the active organ of speech against the point of articulation. There may be one place of articulation or focus, or two places of articulation or foci when active organs of speech contact with two points of articulation. In the first case consonants are called unicentral, in the second they are bicentral.

According to the position of the active organ of speech against the point of articulation consonants may be:

1. Labial

2. Lingual

3. Glottal

Labial consonants are made by the lips. They may be bilabial and labio-dental. Bilabial consonants are produced when both lips are active: [p, b,m, w].

Labio-dental consonants are articulated with the lower lip against the edge of the upper teeth: [f, v].

Lingual consonants are classified into forelingual, mediolingual and backlingual.

Forelingual consonants are articulated with the tip or the blade of the tongue. According to its work they may be:

apical, if the tip of the tongue is active [t, d, s, z, tf, n, l].

cacuminal, if the tip of the tongue is at the back part of the teeth ridge, but a depression is formed in the blade of the tongue as [r].According to the place of obstruction forelingual consonants may be: interdental, dental., alveolar, post-alveolar., palato-alveolar.

Interdental consonants are made with the tip of the tongue projected between the teeth: the English [р, Ө].

Dental consonants are produced with the blade of the tongue against the upper teeth.

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tip against the upper teeth ridge: the English [t, d, s, z, n, 1].

Post-alveolar consonants are made when the tip or the blade of the tongue is against the back part of the teeth ridge or just behind it: the English [r].

Palato-alveolar consonants are made with the tip or the blade of the tongue against the teeth ridge and the front part of the tongue raised towards the hard palate, thus having two places of articulation.
9. Modification of English consonants in connected speech. Assimilation. Types of assimilation. Assimilative changes of the place of obstruction and the active organs of speech, changes in the work of the vocal cords (voicing/devoicing), the lip position, the position of the soft palate, and the manner of releasing plosives (incomplete, nasal, lateral plosives)

In connected speech the sounds are subjected, in general, to two main types of influence: the reciprocal influence of neighboring sounds and the influence on sounds by larger speech units and their elements, first of all — by the stress. The first group of processes is called the combinative changes, the second group — the positional changes.

Assimilation is a process of alteration of speech sounds as a result of which one of the sounds becomes fully or partially simi­lar to the adjoining sound.

Types of assimilation can be distinguished according to: direction, degree of completeness, degree of stability.

Modification of the place of obstruction and the active organs of speech: Assimilation may take place within a word and also at word boundaries. The following three important cases should be noticed:

(a) The alveolar allophones of [t, d, n, 1, s, z] are replaced by the dental variants when immediately followed by the interden­tal [р] or [Ө], eg

within a word: eighth, breadth, tenth; at word boundaries: Put that down! Read this!, on the desk

(b)The post-alveolar [t] and [d] are heard before the post-alveolar sonorant [r], eg

within a word: trip, true, trunk, dream, drink; at word boundaries: at rest, would read.

(c)The bilabial nasal [m] or the alveolar nasal [n] become labio-dental under the influence of immediately following labio-­dental fricatives [f, v], eg

within a word: triumph, comfort, infant; at word boundaries: come for me, ten forks.

Changes in the work of the vocal cords (voicing/devoicing):

Progressive voicing or devoicing is common in English .

(a) The sonorants [m, n, 1, w, r] are partially devoiced when preceded by voiceless consonants [s, p, t, k, f,].

At word boundaries the sonorants [1, r, w] are slightly voiced if with the adjacent words they form a phrasal word or a rhyth­mic group, eg at last, at rest.

(b)Contracted forms of the verbs "is" and "has" may retain voice or be devoiced depending on the preceding consonants.

(c)The assimilative voicing or devoicing of the possessive suffix -'s or -s', the plural suffix -(e)s of nouns and of the third person singular present indefinite of verbs depends on the quali­ty of the preceding consonant.

(d) The assimilative voicing or devoicing of the suffix -ed of regular verbs also depends on the quality of the preceding con­sonant.

Changes in the Lip Position. Consonants followed by the sonorant [w] change their lip-position. They become lip-rounded in anticipation of [w], eg twinkle, quite, swan, language.

Changes in the Position of the Soft Palate. Nasal conso­nants may influence the adjacent plosive. Sometimes [d] changes into [n] , eg handsome, handmade.

Changes in the Manner of the Release of Plosive Conso­nants. English plosives do not always have the third stage con­sisting of a sudden oral release of air. The main variants are:

(a) Incomplete plosion.

In the clusters of two plosives [pp, pb, bb, bp, tt, td, dd, dt,, kk, kg, gg, gk] where the position of the organs of speech is the same for both consonants, there is no separation of the organs of speech between the two plosives.

(b)Nasal plosion.

When a plosive is followed by the syllabic [n] or [m] it has no release of its own, the so-called 'nasal' plosion is produced.

(c)Lateral plosion.

In the sequences of a plosive immediately followed by [1] the closure produced for the plosive is not released till after [1]. Be­fore [1] the release is made by a sudden lowering of the sides of the tongue, and the air escapes along the sides of the tongue with lateral plosion, eg please, cattle, black, candle.
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