Шпаргалки по фонетике английского языка - файл n1.docШпаргалки по фонетике английского языка
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42 Prove that sentence stress can performs a distinctive function
Variations of the distribution of sentence accent can perform the distinctive function . Accentuation patterns differ primarily in respect to the position of the nucleus of the communicative centre .The opposition of these patterns is capable of differentiating the meaning of the sentence or phrase .It can perform the syntactically ,semantically and attitudinally distinctive function . The number of communicative centre indicates the number of intonation groups . In this case , the opposition of accentuation patterns fulfills the syntactically distinctive function . Do you know her schoolmate (,)Harry ?
The semantically distinctive function can be illustrated by the following examples.
You ‘forgot yourself .- ты забываешся
You forgot ‘yourself – ты жертвуешь собой
The attitudinally distinctive function can be illustrated by the following examples
What shall I ‘do ?
What ‘shall I do ?Modal meaning
43 The syllable as a phonetic and Phonological unit
As a phonological unit the syllable performs several functions.That can be combined in the main two: constitutive and distinctive .
The constitutive function of the syllable manifest itself in the fact that the syllable forms higher –level units ; they are words , exentual or rhythmic groups and utterances .2 aspect of this function can be empathized .On the one hand , the syllable is a unit , in which segmental phonemes are realized .On the other hand , within a syllable or sequence of syllables prosodic / suprasegmental features are also realized . These are distinctive variations in loudness, pitch ,in duration .Thus, syllables may be stressed and unstressed ,high , mid and low rising or falling ,long or shot .All these prosodic features are significant for constituting the stressed pattern of a word and the tonal or rhythmic structures of an utterance . So we can say that the syllable is not a mere sum of sounds it’s a specific minimal structure of both phonemic and prosodic features .The distinctive function of a syllable is to differentiate words and words- combination . It has been mentioned that phonemes exist and function within a syllable . therefore words are actually differentiated by the syllable as one articulatory and perceptible unit . For instance , the monosyllabic words beat and bead differ not only in their constant phonemes t and d , but also in the length of I ,which is conditioned by the neighboring fortis and lenis consonant . Variations in the syllabic structure of one and the same word or word- combination may serve to differentiate styles of pronunciation . For example ,national nice and little are well- pronounced
44 General notes of the syllable
A syllable is a speech unit , consisting of a sound or sound sequence , one of which is heard to be more prominent than the others . The most prominent sound being the peak or the nucleus of a syllable is called syllabic .
In English a syllable is formed by any vowel alone or in combination with one or more consonants .You should remember that sonorants in word –final position are non syllabic when they are preceded by a vowel sound (sa|dden,sand, doe|sn’t, don’t). The English sonorants W,J,R are never syllabic , and the syllabic sonorants are N,L,M, which form a separate syllable , if preceded by a consonant .
45 The structural Aspect of the English Syllable
Every syllable has a definite structure or form , depending on the kind of speech sounds it ends in.
There are 2 types of syllables , distinguished from this point of view : a syllable that ends in a vowel sound is called an open syllable .A syllable which ends in a consonant sound is called a closed syllable . It’s clear that correct syllable division is just as important as correct articulation of speech sound ( I saw them eat – I saw the meet . A ice house – a nice house )
46 Word Stress
1 A word as a meaningful language unit has a definite phonetic structure. The latter comprises not only the sounds, that the word is composed of, and not only the syllabic structure that these sounds form, it also has a definite stress pattern.
2 The auditory impression of stress is that of prominence. If a word contains more than one syllable the prominence of those syllables differs. The effect of prominence may be produced by a greater degree of loudness, greater length of the stressed syllable, some modifications in its pitch and quality (corresponding acoustic parameters: intensity, duration, frequency, formant structure).
3 Acoustic level:
4 Intensity, duration, frequency, formant structure.
5 Physical level:
6 Loudness, length, pitch, quality.
7 Languages may be of different types:
8 Dynamic, musical, quantitative, mixed.
The definition of a word stress
1 Word-stress in disyllabic and polysyllabic words may be defined as a greater degree of prominence given to one or more of its syllables.
2 The place of stress in English is relatively free. Primary and secondary stress.
3 American linguists (G.Trager, A.Hill) –four degrees of word stress: primary, secondary, tertiary, weak.
48. How would u define a syllable?
A syllable is a speech unit, consisting of a sound or a sound sequence, one of which is heard to be more prominent than the others. The most prominent sound being the peak or the nucleus of a syllable is called syllabic.There are 2 types of syllables:a syllable which ends in a vowel sound is called an open syllable. A syllable which ends in a consonant sound is called a closed syllble.In English- because of the weak off-glide the English long monophthongs, diphthongs and unstressed short vowels always occur in a phonemically open syllable, when they are separated from the following syllabic sound by only one consonant.(mee/ting, ar/mz, for/tz=. A short stressed vowel in the same position always occurs in a closed syllable, although it`s difficult to say where the point of syllable division actually is- after the consonant or within it.(citi, spanish, little)It is in such words that the checked character of the english stressed vowels is especially manifested. In Russian words with only one consonant between 2 vowels the first syllable is always open(си-ла, во- ды, пу-ля, э-ти).So the free character of the Russian vowels makes the Russian learner of English apt to forget that the English stressed short vovwels can occur in a closed syllable. As a result of this, he or she tends to make the first syllable open in all English words with only one consonant sound between a vowel and a following syllable sound.
49. Syllable formation and devision.
A syllable is a speech unit , consisting of a sound or a sound sequence , one of which is heard to be more prominent than the others The most prominent sound being the peak of the nucleus of a syllable is called syllabic.
In English a syllable is formed by any vowel alone (a monophthong or diphthong) or in combination with one or more consonants, and by a word final sonorant (N, L, M), preceded by a consonant (table). There are 2 types of syllables (depending on the kind of speech sound it ends in)
Open syl (ends in a vowel)
Closed syl (ends in a consonant)
The devision of English words into syl is governed by the following rules:
1. Short vowels always occur in an open syl
2. A short stressed vowel in the same position always occurs in a closed syl (checked character of the Eng stressed vowels)
50. Comment on the functions of syllable in English. As a phonological unit a syllable performs several functions that may be combined into the main two:1. The constitutive:the syllable forms higher level units of words and rhythmic groups and utterances. Two aspects of this function can be emphasized: on the one hand the syllable is a unit in which segmental phonemes are realized; on the other hand within a syllable or a sequence of syllables prosodic or suprasegmental features of speech are also realized. These are distinctive variations in loudness in pitch and in duration.2.The distinctive function of the syllable is to differentiate words word combinations. The phonemes exist and function within the syllable.
52. What is the articulatory and acoustic nature of Word Stress in English? The auditory impression of stress is that of prominence, and if a word contains more than one syllable, the prominence of those syllables differs. So, a stressed syllable on the auditory level is a syllable that has special prominence. The effect of prominence may be produced by a greater degree of loudness, greater length of the stressed syllable, some modifications in its pitch and quality. The acoustic analysis shows that the perception
53 How many degrees of word-stress are distinguished in Br.eng. and Am.eng? In British english there are two degrees of word-stress generally distinguished in words of 4 or more syllables: primary and secondary.The others are set to be unstressed. Some american linguists (Triger and Hill) distinguish 4 degrees of word-stress: primary, secondary, tertiary and weak. Secondary stress generally occurs before the primary stress, while tertiary stress occurs after the primary stress. This is the American way.
51 What difference can you trace between word stress in English and Russian?
Russian is a language with quantitative wordstress, it means that the effect of stress is mainly based on quantity(duration) of the sound and loudness. In Russian vowels in the stressed syllables are louder than vowels in unstressed syllables. English word stress is of a complex nature. Also in English there are words with 2 stresses, when in Russian there are no such words.
19. New tendencies in pronunciation of present-day English
In the dilemma arising from the tendencies to keep traditional spellings and yet to have easy rules for pronunciation it is perhaps well to keep in mind the fact that a change in spelling does not trouble readers very much, provided it goes in the right direction, i.e. gives well-known values to well-known letters and uses them consistently where the ordinary spelling is inconsistent. English people will therefore have little objection to such a spelling as tsar for czar or skeptic (or even skeptik) for sceptic, but scin for skin would be intolerable. We should therefore avoid irritating the ordinary West-European by telling him that ca and co are to be pronounced as [tsa, tso]:? such deviations from his time-honoured habits would only be palatable if they could be proved by unanswerable arguments to be absolutely necessary - which is not the case. Esp caro will be taken by the uninitiated to mean either `dear,' or `meat,' but it stands for `tsar.'
The spelling must be as regular as possible; there should therefore be no mute or silent letters: English and French learners must be specially warned that all written final e's should be clearly sounded with the same vowel as in the middle of a word. For E rhythm, D rhythmus, F rythme we must write ritme (two syllables; cf. the I spelling ritmo). Words beginning with th should be written and pronounced with t: teatre, teologia, teorie, tese; also in the middle of a word: entusiasme, sintese, E synthesis. In all such cases the sound [t] is found everywhere except in E and Greek.
25. What types of pronunciation errors are made in relation to meaning?
Here’s one type of pronunciation error which is made in relation to meaning. It’s a phonological mistake. When allophone of a phoneme is substituted for an allophone of another phoneme.