Шпаргалки по фонетике английского языка - файл n1.doc

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Emphatic

Both Normal & Logical SS’s may be unemphatic & emphatic. Emphatic accent implies the increase of the effort of expression.

2. The distinctive function of SS. Intonation patterns differ primarily in respect to the position of the nucleus of the communicative center. The opposition of the intonation patterns is capable of fulfilling:

? the syntactically distinctive function - the number of communicative centers indicates the number of intonation groups. In this case the opposition of intonation (accentuation) patterns fulfills this function.

(Do you know his schoolmate, | Harry?)

? the semantically distinctive function – is realized in the opposition of different accentuation patterns:

You forget your"self (You neglect yourself).

You for"get yourself (Ты забываешься).

? the attitudinally distinctive function – may be demonstrated by changing the accentuation pattern of the sentence.

What shall I do?

(If ‘shall’ is unaccented, it is an auxiliary verb – Что же делать? ; if it is the nucleus of the communicative center, it functions as a modal verb and here the meaning is changed (insistent).

? together with pitch accent (SS) also fulfills the function of dividing a sentence into theme and rheme.
17. Principal types of pronunciation.RP as a teaching norm.

National Language – written (generally accepted standard) and spoken forms (may vary from locality to locality)

Dialect – differ in grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation - dialectology, sociolinguistics

Different types of pronunciation may vary in all components of pron system.

Orphoepic norm – dialect that became standard pron. due to economical, geographical, political factors. Other dialects – illiterate, uncultural.

Within standard variant there also can be some differences – ex. Moscow\st.Peter pron.

All national types of English pronunciation have many features in common due the common origin. And have many differences due to the different development after the separation from the GB.

In British isles: southern English, Northern, Scottish

Before 1870, the use of spoken dialect was not stigmatised. However with the development of public school English to become RP – the accent of the social and educational elite – the use of non-standard pronunciation became a marker of low social status and lack of education by 1890.

Therefore, the use of RP quickly spread from the educational context to become a general super-regional spoken standard. The Army and the Imperial Civil Service were two important institutions to fuel this process.

With the invention of radio and television the dissemination and authority of RP was further strengthened: the BBC adopted RP as a pronunciation standard. They even founded an advisory board that had to decide on the right pronunciation of difficult words and moreover developed pronunciation guidelines for radio and TV speakers. Therefore, RP is also known as BBC English.
18. General American

American English shows a lesser degree of dialect than British due to some historical factors: the existence of standard English when first English settlers came to America, the high mobility of population, internal migrations of different communities. So there are 3 types of American language – 1. the eastern type (is spoken in new England, in New York city, it bears a remarkable resemblance to southern English.) 2. The southern type (used in south and south-east of USA, it possesses a striking distinctive feature – vowel drawl.) 3. general American.(is spoken in Atlantic states: New York, new jersey y etc., it’s the pronunciation standard as its language is used by radio and TV.)
20. The problems of Phonostylistics

The primary concern of linguistics is the study of language in use. It’s particularly relevant for phonetic studies. We’re interested in how the phonetic units are used in various social situation. It’s the extra linguistic situation that influences our choice of language means.

There’s a special branch of linguistics that studies the way language means function in different situation. It’s called functional stylistics. It’s primary concern is functional style – a set of language means used in a particular situation.

Phonostylistics is the study of the way phonetic units, both segmental (sounds) and suprasegmental (intonation), are used in a particular extralinguistic situation.
Extralinguistic situation consists of 3 components:

1) the purpose;

It’s the most important factor that guides the communication. The purpose is what you want to achieve (to get/give information, to instruct, to entertain, to chat). The aim is very important as far as pronunciation is concerned.

The subject matters less important but it stil matters.

This factor can bring numerous variations in pronunciation which are determined both by individual characteristics of the speaker and the character of their relationship.

We must consider individual and socio-cultural features: the social status, social group or class the speaker belongs to.

2) participants

Another important aspect is the character of participant relationship which is reflected in the tenor (тональность) of discourse: formal/ informal, friendly/ unfriendly, SOMETHING

and it effects greatly the choice of linguistic means.

The social roles of the speaker are also important. We have authority subordination relationship (teacher – pupil)

3) scene/ setting

This component has several factors:

- physical orientations of the participants (the distance between people, proximics studies it)

Setting can be also described in the following terms: public/ non-public, formal/ informal, monoloquing/ poliloguing, dialoguing.

It also includes the cannel of communication: face to face, public presentation, telephone, mass media. (аксиальное – радиальное)

All the components of extralinguistic situation influence the choice of linguistic means.


21) The stylistically distinctive function of intonation

The stylistically distinctive function is the style of the speech.

Each functional style and each function of speech has its own characteristics in melody, tempo, loudness, voice quality, pause. Official style (frequent use of the gradually descending scale, greater degree of loudness, slower tempo of speech), colloquial style (lowered degree of loudness, great number of hesitation pauses).
22) Why can we say that pauses fulfill a linguistic function?

It is well known that with stuttering and the breaking of speech intonation, speech rhythm also breaks. That is why pause is an important thing. A pause is connected with the need to make an inhalation, to relax a little during the speech act, and possibly to draw the attention of an interlocutor by particular intonation.
23) Is it necessary to single out the group of diphthongoids?

Of course, group of diphthongoids is necessary to single out because of the stability of articulation. The group is singled out to show an intermediate case, when the change in the tongue position is fairly weak.
24) Prove that vowel length is irrelevant in Modern English

Vowel length in modern English is not distinctive or its irrelevant. Quality is more important. Vowel length may be different it depends on the position of a vowel in the word. [ka:- ka:d- ka:t] Vowel is the longest in its final position. It’s a bit shorter before a voice consonant; the shortest is before voiceless consonant.
26 What is the difference between normal, logical and emphatic stress? 1.Normal (is used to arrange the sentence phonetically, to single a nuclear of the centre of the utterance – I want a blue dress) 2.Logical (when the symantic centre is shifted from the last notional word to soma other word than it’s a logical stress – the weather is nice today)3. Emphatic (stress may differ according to the degree of prominence with which the symantic sentence is pronounced, emph stress is associated with fall rise and mid and high fall – the weather is nice today).
27 What type of transcription do you prefere for teaching? Transcription Basically we distinguish two types of transcription: • phonemic transcription or broad transcription provides special symbols for all the phonemes of a language.We write the transcribed text in slashes /teIbl/. • phonetic transcription or narrow transcription suggests special symbols including some information about articulatiry activity of particular allophonic features. Phonetic transcription is a good basis for teaching the pronunciation of a foreign language, being a powerful visual aid. To achieve good results it’s necessary that the learnes of English should associate each relevant difference between the phoneme with special symbols, that is each phoneme should have a special symbol. If not, the difference between the pairs of sounds above may be wrongly associated with vowel length which is non-distinctive (redundant) in modern English.
28 Whay can we say that Baudin de Courtenay’s conception of the phoneme is idealistic? According to Baudin-de-Courtnay conseption phonemes don’t exist objectively, abstractional and generalized aspect of the phoneme is exaggerated and the material aspect is ignored. Pnonemes exist in the mind of the speaker, actually pronounced spech-sounds are imperfect realizations of ideal psychical images. According to Baudin-de-Courtenay the pnoneme is defined as «психический эквивалент звука». This is an idealistic conception, as it regards phoneme as mental units existing in the mind but not in the reality.
29 Which school of thought in relation to morphonoligy would you give preference to? Moscow school:they support the theory of neutralization of phonemes.A neutralization is said to occur when two or more closely related sounds, which are in contrast with each other on most positions like дом-том, are found to be non-contrastive in certain other positions, like суд-судить. The loss of one or more distinctive features of a phoneme in the weak position is called phonemic neutralization. Linguists belonging to this school, think the difference between allophones isn’t limited- they may be quite different from the viewpoint of articulation. We must mind the strong position. However, this conception has a weak point:1 it’s sometimes impossible to find the strong position for the sounds, 2 sometimes the difference between the allophones of the same phoneme is too much strong, 3 ordinary speakers are in no doubt that the sound which occurs in a word like гриб is [б], not [п]. As for Leningrad school, the linguists (Zinder, Vasiliev, Matusevich) believe that the phonemic content of the morphemeisn’t the same, that the difference between the allophones of the same phoneme is limited. According to them [k] in лук and [k] in луг are the same phonemes.
30 What changes can be traced in the pronunciation of the vowels [u] and [u:]? Both [u] and [u:] vowels are classed as back. The latter point of view doesn’t seem to be consistent enough. The point is that the vowels in this pair differ in quality which is partially due to the raised part of the tongue.So in this case a more detailed classification seems to be a more precise one since it adequately reflects the articulatory distinction actually prosent in the language.
31. The other articulatory characteristic of vowels as to the tongue position is its vertical movement. The way British and Soviet phoneticians approach this aspect is also slightly different. British scholars distinguish three classes of vowels: high(or close), mid(or half-open), and low(or open) vowels. Soviet phoneticians made the classifications more detailed distinguishing two subclasses in each class, i.e. broad and narrow variations of the three vertical positions of the tongue. Thus the following six groups of vowels are distinguished:

1) close a)narrow: [i:] [u:]

b)broad: [i] [?] [i(ə)] [?(ə)]
2) mid a)narrow: [e] [з:] [ə] [e(i)] [з(?)]

b) broad: [ə] [۸]
3) open a) narrow [?(ə)]

b)broad: [ж] [a(i, ?)]
32. In establishing the phonemic status of speech sounds the distinctive function of the phoneme should be taken into consideration. This function can be performed only in the way of phonological oppositions. The method of commutation/ It consists in finding pairs of words and their grammatical forms. The procedure of finding minimal pairs is called a commutation test. A linguist takes a word and substitutes one sound of it for another: cold – bold. If this substitution affects the meaning, then allophones belong to different phonemes. There’s another result possible: tap – tack. If in the result of the commutation test we get a meaningless word, we can’t say anything about the phonemic status of the sounds? which we appose. The third result is possible: field – fiel’d(Scotch). The meaning is not affected – the sounds belong to the same phoneme.
33. A slightly different approach seems to have been taken by British Phoneticians. They do not single out the classes of front-retracted and back-advanced vowels. So both [i:] and [i] vowels are classed as front, and both [u:] and [?] vowels are classed as back. The later point of view does not seem to be consistent enough. The point is that the vowels in these two pairs differ in quality which is partially due to the raised part of the tongue. So in this case a more detailed classification seems to be a more precise one since it adequately reflects the articulatory distinction actually present in the language.
35. Until recently vowel length of duration was regarded as a phonologically relevant feature? capable of distinguishing long and short vowel, but in English the quality of historically long and short vowels differs, so length is not the only feature that distinguishes them. Besides length differences are conditioning, they, therefore, can’t be distinctive. Acoustic analysis shows that the length of vowels differs in different phonetic environment: [ si: - si:d – si:t – sid]. It’s well-known that [i:] in [si:] is longer that the same in seed, and [i:] in sit is the shortest, it’s almost as short as [i] in sid. It has also been established that a vowel is longer in front of a fricative than in front of a plosive consonants. Thus, [ж] in жs is longer than ж in жt. Besides that vowel length depends on whether the syllable it occurs in is stressed. Stressed vowels are generally longer than the unstressed ones. It also depends on the number of syllables: [a:m – disa:m – disa:rmament]. The first is the longest. As length varies or differs and doesn’t characterize all the allophones of the historically long vowels, length can’t be considered it’s phonologically relevant feature, but there are perceptual features, which constantly distinguish all the English vowels. These are distinctions in their quality, which are based on the slight differences in the tongue positions when producing these vowels. Thus the opposition [i:] vs [i] is based on the following phonologically relevant features: high-narrow vs high-broad, fully-front vs front – retracted.
36. The opposition of terminal tones can fulfill the syntactically distinctive function, the semantically function and attitudinally distinctive function and the stylistically distinctive function. The syntactically distinctive function is realized in the following 2 ways. 1) The number of terminal tones indicates of intonation groups. Sometimes the number of intonation groups we choose to use is important for meaning. “My sister who lives in Edinburgh has just arrived”. This may have 2 different meanings. In writing this difference is marked bu punctuation, but in speech – by having 2-33 intonation groups.

2) When intonation contains the syntactically distinctive function. The opposition of terminal tones may differentiate the communicative type of sentence. Didn’t you enjoy it? – a general question. Didn’t you enjoy it!!! – exclamation. The opposition of terminal tones is capable of differentiating the actual meaning of a sentence ( I don’t give my books to anybody) With the low-fall on anybody – you give them to no one, but if with low-rise – don’t give them to a stranger. Or: (not once): low- fall – ни разу? Fall-rise – many times. More commonly terminal tones fulfill the attitudinally distinctive function. In this case the opposition of terminal tones differentiates the modal or the emotional meaning of the phrase. That means that the writer or speaker’s attitude towards the content of the sentence or to the reality is distinguished/ If we say why with low-fall, you sound detached and hostile. If you want to sound sympathetic- use low rise, So as far as the emotional meaning is concerned it can be differentiated too, by terminal tones. The opposition of terminal tones indicates the intensity of emotional meaning.
37. Prove that D.Jone’s conception of the phoneme is vulgarly-materialistic. The second group of linguists denied the abstractional and generalized aspect and exaggerated the material one. The linguists who support this point of view suppose that the phoneme is a mechanical sum of its allophones. Daniel Jones defines a phoneme as a family of related sounds, from the philosophical point of view this can be treated as vulgarly materialistic.
38. Prove the word accent can perform a distinctive function. Word stress has a distinctive function, there exists different words in English with analogous sound structure which are differentiated in speech only by these stress pattern. ‘insult-in’sult
40. Prove that voice pitch can perform a distinctive function. The most evident is the distinctive function of terminal tones. The opposition of terminal tones can fulfill the syntactically distinctive function, the semantically distinctive function and attitudinally distinctive function and the stylistically distinctive function. The syntactically distinctive function is realized in the following 2 ways:1)The number of terminal tones indicates the number of intonation groups. Sometimes the number of intonation groups we choose to use is important for meaning. “My sister who lives in London has just arrived”. This may have 2 different meanings. In writing this difference is marked by punctuation, but in speech-by having 2 or more intonation groups. 2)When intonation contains the syntactically distinctive function. The opposition of terminal tones may differentiate the communicative type of sentence. Didn’t you enjoy it?-a general question. Didn’t you enjoy it!!-exclamation. The opposition of terminal tones is capable of differentiating the actual meaning of a sentence (I don’t give my books to anybody). With the low-fall on anybody-you give them to no one, but if with low-rise-don’t give them to a stranger. Or :(not once): low-fall-ни разу?Fall – rise-many times.

More commonly terminal tones fulfill the attitudinally distinctive function. In this case the opposition of terminal tones differentiate the modal or the emotional meaning of the phrase. That means that the writer or speaker’s attitude towards the content of the sentence or to the reality is distinguished. If we say why with low-fall, you sound detached and hostile. If you want to sond sympathetic-we must use low-rise. So pitch-range maybe narrow, mid and wide and the range of voice pitch indicates the emotional colouring of the sentence. So as far as the emotional meaning is concerned, it can be differentiated too, by terminal tones. The opposition of terminal tones indicates the intensity of emotional meaning.
41.What section of the intonation-pattern is the most important one? Why? Each intonation group has 4 parts: nucleus, pre-head, head tale. The nucleus is the most important part of the intonation pattern. No a single intonation pattern can exist without it. The tail conveys no particular information and together with the nucleus if forms the terminal tone. The parts of the intonation pattern can be combined in various ways, thus expressing different meanings. Each intonation group has a communicative or semantic center that conveys the most important piece of information which is usually something new. The nucleus of the communicative center is marked by the terminal tone, thus the terminal tone arranges the intonation group both semantically and phonetically.
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