Поливод О.В. Методичка для практических и самостоятельных занятий по фонетике (на украинском языке) - файл metod pract phonetics.docПоливод О.В. Методичка для практических и самостоятельных занятий по фонетике (на украинском языке)
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Перелік практичних занять………………………………………………………...5
Практичне заняття 1 Органи мовлення…………………………………………..5
Практичне заняття 2 Поняття про фонему………………………………………7
Практичне заняття 3 Приголосні звуки. Принципи класифікації………………8
Практичне заняття 4 Артикуляційне визначення приголосних……………….12
Практичне заняття 5 Сонанти…………………………………………………....16
Практичне заняття 6 Голосні …………………………………………………….19
Практичне заняття 7 Артикуляційне визначення голосних…………………….23
Практичне заняття 8 Дифтонги. Дифтонгоїди …………………………………..25
Практичне заняття 9 Зміна голосних звуків в процесі мовлення……………….27
Практичне заняття 10 Зміна приголосних звуків в процесі мовлення…………28
Практичне заняття 11 Склад………………………………………………………30
Практичне заняття 12 Наголос……………………………………………………32
Практичне заняття 13 Інтонація…………………………………………………..33
Практичне заняття 14. Склад інтонаційної групи………………………………..36
Список літератури………………………………………………………………….37 ВСТУП
Методичні вказівки щодо практичних занять з дисципліни «Теоретична та практична фонетика англійської мови» призначені для студентів I курсу зі спеціальності 6.030500 – «Переклад».
Метою методичних вказівок є:
Дати студентам правильні настанови щодо відтворення і сприйняття всіх англійських фонем як ізольовано, так і в словах.
Дати настанови щодо вживання правильної англійської інтонації, а також прищепити студентам навички письма та усної мови.
Систематизувати і поповнити набуті в школі знання студентів з фонетики англійської мови.
Виправити неправильні вимовні вміння і навички.
Методичні вказівки містять 14 практичних занять, в яких розглядаються основні поняття стосовно фонетики англійської мови, якими повинен володіти майбутній філолог. Також надано детальний опис артикуляції всіх фонем англійської мови. Наведені скоромовки, які є необхідними при тренуванні вимови окремих фонем.
Методичні вказівки можуть бути використані також і при самостійній роботі над англійською вимовою. ПРАКТИЧНЕ ЗАНЯТТЯ № 1 Тема. Органи мовленння
Тhe Оrgans of Speech and their Work Мета:
знати будову органів мови і їх участь в утворенні звуків мови і звукосполучень.
The air stream released by the lungs
goes through the windpipe
and comes to the larynx,
which contains the vocal cords.
The vocal cords are two elastic folds which may be kept apart or brought together. The opening between them is called the glottis. This is the usual state of the vocal cords, when we breathe out. If the tense vocal cords are brought together, the air stream forcing an opening makes them vibrate and we hear some voice.
There is one more state of the vocal cords which results in the glottal stop. When the vocal cords are brought close together and then opened suddenly by the air stream there comes a sort of coughing noise, a kind of the 'click' of the vocal cords. This sound is called the glottal stop.
On coming out of the larynx the air stream passes through the pharynx.
The pharyngal cavity extends from the top of the larynx to the soft palate,
which directs the air stream either to the mouth
or nasal cavities,
which function as the principal resonators.
The soft palate can be easily seen in a hand mirror. Looking into the mirror you will see the soft palate, the very end of which is known as the uvula
. The soft palate can easily move. When the soft palate is in its lowered position the air goes up into the nasal cavity and then out through the nose. This is the usual position of the soft palate when we breathe through the nose. This is also the position for the nasal sounds [m, n, ŋ].
If you nip your nose you cannot pronounce these sounds. But as soon as you release the nose the air will continue its way and you will hear the sounds again. When the soft palate is raised the uvula forms a full contact with the back wall of the pharynx and the air stream goes through the mouth cavity. This is the most typical position of the soft palate for most of the sounds of many languages.
The soft palate is the furthest part of the palate from the teeth. Most of the palate is hard. This hard and fixed part of the palate is divided into two sections: the hard palate (the highest part of the palate) and the teeth ridge or alveolar ridge (the part immediately behind the upper front teeth). You can touch the teeth ridge with the tongue tip. The teeth ridge is very important in English as many consonants are formed with the tongue touching or close to it. If you still move the tip of the tongue forward you will feel the teeth.
teeth are not very important for making speech sounds, while the upper
teeth take part in the production of many of them.
The most important organ of speech is the tongue. Phoneticians divide the tongue into four sections, the part which lies opposite the soft palate is called the back of the tongue
; the part facing the hard palate is called the front
; the one lying under the teeth ridge is known as the blade
and its extremity the tip
. By the central part of the tongue we mean the area where the front and back meet. The edges of the tongue are known as the rims. The tongue may lie flat or move in the horizontal or vertical directions. It can also change its shape so that the sides are curved up forming a groove.
The lips can take up various positions as well. They can be brought firmly together or kept apart neutral, rounded,
All the organs of speech can be divided into two groups:
organs of speech, movable and taking an active part in the sound formation: (a) the vocal cords which produce voice; (b) the tongue which is the most flexible, movable organ; (c) the lips affecting very considerably the shape of the mouth cavity; (d) the soft palate with the uvula, directing the stream of air either to the mouth or to the nasal cavity; (e) the back wall of the pharynx contracted for some sounds; (f) the lower jaw which movement controls the gap between the teeth and also the disposition of the lips; (g) the lungs providing air for sounds;
organs of speech (a) the teeth; (b) the teeth ridge; (c) the hard palate and (d) the walls of the resonator. Література: [4, c. 8-11]. ПРАКТИЧНЕ ЗАНЯТТЯ № 2 Тема. Поняття про фонему
Sounds and Phonemes Мета:
засвоїти поняття про фонему, основні функції та реалізації.
Speech sounds are grouped into language units called phonemes
. A phoneme may be thought as the smallest contrastive language unit which exists in the speech of all people belonging to the same language community in the form of speech sounds and may bring about the change of meaning.
The phoneme is a functional unit. That mans that being opposed to others phonemes in the same phonetic context it is capable of differentiating the meaning, eg: pie – tie Are you fond of this cut?
lot – lit Are you fond of this cart?
The phonemes is realized in speech in the material form of speech sounds of different type. Various speech realizations of the phoneme are called its allophones
. The difference between the allophones of the same phoneme is due to their position in various phonetic contexts. For example, the consonant [d] in the isolated position as well as in such a sound sequence as [dot] is lenis voiced stop articulated with the tip of the tongue against the teeth ridge. In the position before an interdental constrictive [ө] as in breadth it is formed with the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth, when [d] is followed by the post-alveolar [r] as in dry
the tip of the tongue is placed behind the teeth ridge.
The list of the allophones of the phoneme [d] might continue. Nevertheless all the allophones of the phoneme [d] have a few articulatory features in common. All of them are forelingual lenis stop. If any of these features is modified the meaning of the word is either changed or destroyed accordingly. In case the forelingual articulation is changed for the labial one the word dot
is modified into pot
. Those articulatory features which are common to all the allophones of the same phoneme and are capable of differentiating the meaning are called distinctive
Allophones of the same phoneme never occur in the same phonetic context. They cannot differentiate the meaning since there is no mutual opposition possible in this case. Such speech sounds are grouped into a phoneme and function as a language unit opposed to other language units, i.e. phonemes. All allophones of the same phoneme are indicated by the same symbol.
Vowels and Consonants
The organs of speech are capable of uttering many different kinds of sounds. From the practical point of view it is convenient to distinguish two types of speech sounds; vowels and consonants. Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction in the supra-glottal cavities and consequently have no noise component. In the articulation of consonants a kind of noise producing obstruction is formed in the supra-glottal cavities. Such sounds may be pronounced with or without vocal cords vibration. Література: [3, c. 130 - 134]. ПРАКТИЧНЕ ЗАНЯТТЯ № 3 Тема. Приголосні звуки. Принципи класифікації
Consonants. Principles of classification Мета:
засвоїти артикуляційні особливості приголосних звуків та принципи класифікації.
Consonants are made with air stream that meets an obstruction in the mouth or nasal cavities. On the articulatory level the consonants change:
1. In the degree of noise
2. In the manner of articulation
3. In the place of articulation.
According to the degree of noise English consonants are divided into two big classes:
Class A Noise Consonants
Class B Sonorants
A. In the production of noise consonants there is a noise component characteristic. Noise consonant sounds vary:
(1) In the work of vocal cords,
(2) in the degree of force of articulation.
According to the work of vocal cords they may be voiceless and voiced.
Voiced consonants are: [b, d, g, v, р, z, Z,G].
Voiceless consonants are [p, t, k, f, ө, s, S, C, h]
According to the force of articulation noise consonants may be:
- strong (fortis) [p, t, k, f, ө, s, S, C, h]
- weak (lenis) [b, d, g, v, р, z, Z,G]
B. Sonorants (or sonorous consonants) are with tone prevailing over the noise because of a rather wide air passage. They are: [m, n, ŋ, l, w, j, r].
According to the manner of articulation consonants may be of four groups:
3. Occlusive-constrictive (affricates).
1. Occlusive consonants are sounds in the production of which the air stream meets a complete obstruction in mouth. Occlusive noise consonants are called stops
because the breath is completely stopped at some point articulation and then it is released with the slight explosion, that s why they are also called plosives.
According to the work of the vocal cords stops may be voiced and voiceless.
Occlusive voiced Cs are: the English [b, d, g]
Occlusive voiceless Cs are: [p, t, k]
2. Constrictive consonants are those in the production of which the air stream meets an incomplete obstruction in the resonator, so the air passage is constricted.
Constrictive noise consonants are called fricatives
. The consonant sounds in the articulation of which the air passage is constricted and the air escapes through the narrowing with friction.
The English fricatives [f, v, р, ө, Z, S, s, z, h ]. Fricatives may also differ: in the work of the vocal cords; in the degree of force of articulation.
According to the work of vocal cords they may be voiced and voiceless.
The English voiced fricatives [v, D, z, Z ]
The English voiceless fricatives [ f, ө s, S, h]
According to the force of articulation voiced consonants are weak (lenis), voiceless consonants are strong (fortis).
3. Occlusive – constrictive consonants or affricates are noise consonant sounds produced with a complete obstruction which is slowly released and the air escapes from the mouth with some friction. There are only two occlusive-constrictives in English: [C;G]
The English [G] is voiced (in certain positions) and weak (lenis); [C is voiceless and strong (fortis). Affricates are oral according to the position of the soft palate.
4. Rolled consonants are sounds pronounced with periodical momentary obstructions when the tip of the tongue taps quickly several times against the teeth ridge and vibrates in the air stream. They are the Ukrainian [p, p’].
According to the place of articulation (position of active organ of speech) against the point of articulation (the place of articulation) consonants may be:
Labial consonants are made by the lips. They may be bilabial and labio-dental Bilabial consonants are produced when both lips are active. They are: [p, b, m, w]. labio-dental consonants are articulated with the lower lip against the edge of the upper teeth. They are: [f, v].
Lingual consonants are classified into forelingual, mediolingual, backlingual. Forelingual consonants are articulated with the tip or the blade of the tongue. They differ in the position of the tip of the tongue. According to its work they may be:
- apical if the tip of the tongue is active as in case of English [t, d, s, z, ө, S, р, G, C, n, l].
- dorsal if the blade of the tongue takes part in articulation, the tip being passive and lowered as in a case of the Ukrainian [т, т’, д, д’, н, н’, с, с’, з, з’, ч’, ц]; in English there are no dorsal consonants;
- cacuminal, if the tip of the tongue is at the back of the teeth ridge, but a depression is formed in the blade of the tongue as in case of the English [r] and the Ukrainian [p, p’]
According to the place of obstruction forelingual consonants may be:
Interdental. Dental. Alveolar. Post-alveolar. Palato-alveolar.
Interdendal consonants or interdentals are made with the tip of the tongue projected between the teeth: the English [р, ө]. There are no interdental consonants in Ukrainian.
Dental consonants or dentals are produced with the blade of the tongue against the upper teeth: the Ukrainian [т,т’, д, д’,с,с’, з, з’,ц, л, л’].
Alveolar consonants or alveolars are articulated with the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth ridge: the English [t, d, s, z, n, l].
Post-alveolar consonants or post-alveolars are made when the tip or the blade of the tongue is against the back part of the teeth ridge or just behind it: the English [r].
Palato-alveolar consonants or palato-alveolars are made with the tip or the blade of the tongue against the teeth ridge and the front part of the tongue raised towards the hard palate, thus having two places of articulation or foci (front secondary focus); both narrowings are flat the English [C,S,Z,G].
Mediolingual consonants are produced with the front part of the tongue. They are always palatal
. Palatal consonants or palatals are made with the front part of the tongue raised high to the hard palate: the Eng. [j].
Backlingual consonants are also called velar, because they are produced with the back part of the tongue raised towards the soft palate (Lat. velum). They are: the Eng. [k, g, ŋ ].
Література: [4, c. 24-44; 2, с. 25-31]. ПРАКТИЧНЕ ЗАНЯТТЯ № 4 Тема. Артикуляційне визначення приголосних
The glottal consonant [h] is articulated in glottis. There are no glottal consonants in Ukrainian.
The Articulatory Description of Consonants Мета:
засвоїти артикуляційні особливості змичних шумних, щілинних, фрикативних та змично-щілинних приголосних звуків.
Definition [p, b] – are occlusive, plosive, bilabial; [p] is strong and voiceless; [b] is weak and voiced, in final position it is partly devoiced.
1. The lips are firmly kept together.
2. The soft palate is raised and the air coming into the mouth stops for some time and then breaks the obstruction with the a slight explosion.
3. The vocal cords do not vibrate [p] is produced. For [b] they are tense kept together and vibrate when [b] occurs before vowels or intervocalic positions, eg begin, rubber.
4. The breath effort is very strong for [p], for [b] it is weak .
Tongue Twister: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, Where's the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?
Betty Better bought some butter. "But," she said, "this butter's bitter. If I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter. But a bit of better butter will make my bitter batter better. "So she bought a bit of better butter and made her bitter batter better.
Definition [t, d] are occlusive, plosive, forelingual, apical, alveolar; [t] is strong and voiceless, [d] is weak and voiced, in final position is slightly devoiced.
1. The complete obstruction is made by the tip of the tongue firmly pressed against the middle of the alveolar ridge.
2. The soft palate is raised and the air coming into the mouth is trapped for short time. Then it breaks the obstruction with a slight explosion.
3. The vocal cords do not vibrate when [t] is formed. For [d] they are drawn together and vibrate when it occurs before vowels of intervocal positions, e.g. done, ladder.
4. The breath effort for [t] is very strong, for [d] it is weak.
Tongue Twister: The two-twenty-two train tore through the tunnel.
When a doctor doctors a doctor, does the doctor doing the doctoring doctor as the doctor being doctored wants to be doctored or does the doctor doing the doctoring doctor as he wants to doctor?
Definition [k, g] are occlusive, plosive, backlingual, velar; [k] is strong and voiceless; [g] is weak and voiced, in final position is partly devoiced.
1. The back of the tongue makes a firm contact with the soft palate.
2. The soft palate is raised. The air coming from the lungs is trapped for a short time and then breaks the obstruction with a slight explosion.
3. The vocal cords do not vibrate for [k]. When [g] is produced they are drawn together and vibrate.
4. The breath effort for [k] is very strong, for [g] it is weak.
Tongue Twister: How much caramel can a canny cannonball cram in a camel if a canny cannonball can cram caramel in a camel?
Giggling geese are playing games. They are going to race.
Constrictive Fricative Consonants (Fricatives). They are constrictive because the air passage is constricted and an incomplete obstruction is formed; they are fricative, because the air passes through the narrowing with audible friction.
Definition [f, v] are constrictive fricative, labio-dental; [f] is strong and voiceless, [v] is weak and voiced, in the final position it is partly devoiced.
1. The lower lip is very close to the edge of the upper front teeth, thus forming an incomplete obstruction. When the air goes through the narrowing it causes slight friction.
2. For [f] the vocal cords do not vibrate; there may be some vibration accompanying [v] when it occurs in word initial positions as in vast
or between vowels as in never
3. For [f] the air force is very strong. Tongue Twister: Five frantic frogs fled from fifty fierce fishes. Vincent vowed vengeance very vehemently
Definition [ө; р] are constrictive fricative, forelingual, interdental; [р] is strong and voiceless, [ө] is weak and voiced, in final position it is partly devoiced.
1. The tip of the tongue is either close to the edge of the upper teeth or slightly projected between the teeth.
2. For [ө] the vocal cords do not vibrate, they vibrate for [р] when it occurs in word initial position, before a vowel or in intervocalic positions, eg thus, rather.
3. The air force is very strong for [ө].
Tongue Twister: I thought a thought. But the thought I thought wasn't the thought I thought.
If the thought I thought I thought had been the thought I thought,
I wouldn't have thought so much. Lesser leather never weathered wetter weather better.
Thank the other three brothers of their father's mother's brother's side.
Whenever the weather is cold.
Whenever the weather is hot.
We'll whether the weather, whatever the weather,
whether we like it or not.
Definition [s, z] are constrictive fricative, forelingual, apical alveolar, [s] is strong and voiceless, [z] is weak and voiced, in final position it is partially devoiced.
1. The tip of the tongue is close to the teeth ridge. The narrowing is round, because of the groove in the blade of the tongue.
2. The teeth are very close together.
3. The vocal cords do not vibrate when [s] is produced. For [z] they vibrate when it occurs before vowels or in intervocalic positions, eg zone, easy.
The friction for [s] is strong, even stronger than for [ө].
Tongue Twister: Sam's shop stocks short spotted socks. Sounding by sound is a sound method of sounding sounds. Shy Shelly says she shall sew sheets.
[S;Z] are constrictive fricative, forelingual, apical, palate-alveolar, bicentral; [S] is strong and voiceless, [Z] is weak and voiced, in final position it is partially devoiced.
1. The tip of the tongue is close to the back part of the teeth ridge forming a flat narrowing.
2. The front part of the tongue is raised towards the hard palate, forming the front secondary focus, thus palatalizing the sounds.
3. The lips are neutral or slightly rounded.
4. The vocal cords do not vibrate when [ѓ]is pronounced, for  they vibrate when it occurs before vowels, eg pleasure.
Tongue Twister: She saw Sherif's shoes on the sofa.
But was she so sure she saw Sherif's shoes on the sofa?
Definition [h] – is constrictive fricative, glottal, voiceless.
Recommendations for articulation. In order to make [h]-sounds, hold the mouth ready for the vowel and push a short gasp of breath by the lungs; breath the air out weakly adding some slight fricative noise to the vowel
Tongue Twister: Well, you know last Easter, Henry and Helen had a holiday in Honolulu. They had a horrible holiday and when they arrived home, Helen left him.
How much ground would a groundhog hog, if a groundhog could hog ground?
Occlusive Constrictive Consonants (Affricates)
There are only two affricates in English: [CG]. They are occlusive-constrictives because a complete obstruction is formed and it is released slowly, with friction.
Definition [C;G] are occlusive-constrictive, forelingual, apical, palato-alveolar, [C] is strong and voiceless, [G] is weak and voiced. In word final position it is partially devoiced.
1. The tip of the tongue touches the back part of the teeth ridge.
2. The front part of the tongue is raised towards the hard palate forming the front secondary focus (a flat narrowing).
3. The soft palate is raised so that the breath is trapped for a short time (because of the complete obstruction between the tongue-tip and the teeth ridge) then the obstruction is released slowly and the friction is heard.
4. The lips are slightly rounded. Література: [4, c. 24-54; 2, с. 69-93].ПРАКТИЧНЕ ЗАНЯТТЯ № 5