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1. TG as a branch of linguistics.
The Course of TG aims to provide students with a solid foundation in the description and analysis of the grammatical system of English. Compare with Practical Grammar aim – to describe grammar rules that are necessary to understand and make sentences. TG explains these rules. As compared
to the other two parts of language(phonology and lexicology) Grammar is - more abstract and systematic; - most stable.
Grammar abstracts itself from the particular and concrete and builds its rules and laws, taking into consideration only the common features of words. It exist through ages without considerable changes. The main object
of TG is the grammatical structure of language, i.e. the system of the rules of word changing and sentence building. Thus, Theoretical Grammar is the branch of linguistics, which studies forms of words and their relations in sentences in an abstract way.
Grammatical elements of language present a unity of content and expression. Grammatical content is opposed to lexical one in that it is the most general and abstract part of contentwwithin the elements of language (grammatical meaning in fact is the function of a linguistic element). These parts of content, together with the formal means through which they are expressed, are called "grammatical categories". Word order
as an element of grammatical form has its own meaningful functions: 1) the difference between the central idea of the utterance and the minor idea; 2) between emotive and unemotive modes of speech; 3) between different types of style. Synthetic
languages are defined as ones of ‘internal’ grammar of the word – most of grammatical meanings and grammatical relations of words are expressed with the help of inflexions.(Rus) Analytical
languages are those of ‘external’ grammar because most grammatical meanings and grammatical forms are expressed with the help of form-words (will do).
English is a flexional-analytical language, which connects words into sentences making wide use of the order of words and functional words due to the limited number of grammatical flexions. The primary grammatical means is order of words. Morphology
is the field of linguistics that studies the internal structure of words (the grammatical teaching of the word). Syntax
(from Ancient Greek "together", and "arrangement") is
the study of the principles and rules for constructing sentences in natural languages (the grammatical teaching of the sentence).
Set of rules and principles that govern the sentence structure of any individual language
phoneme - the smallest meaningless distinctive unit;
morpheme – the smallest meaningful unit with structural (morphological) function;
word - the smallest (basic) nominative unit, basic unit of lexical level;
phrase – a naming unit which nominates complex phenomena;
sentence – the smallest communicative unit, basic unit of syntax which nominates situations or events in their reference to reality (expresses predication, i.e. has predicative function);
super-sentential construction – a functional unit of speech which follows regular lingual patterning; they are immediate constituents of text and express a more or less isolated idea in it;
discourse (text) - highest communicative unit; has semantic (topical) unity and semantico-syntactic cohesion. Gr.meaning
-the abstract meaning of a W, that depends on its role in a sentence. Gr.category
is a system of expressing a generalised gr.meaning by means of paradigmatic correlation of gr.forms. The set of gr.forms constitutes a paradigm.
2. Morphology. Part of speech theories.
All the words of the English language are grouped into different types of classes. This classification is based on three main principles:
1) their grammatical meaning;
2) their form and
their syntactical characteristics.
We distinguish between notional(things, actions, qualities, emotions) and functional parts of speech(relations and connections between notional words or sentences). Thus there are 9 notional parts of speech(the noun,the adjective,the stative,the pronoun,the numeral,the verb,the adverb,the modal words,the interjection) and 3 functional ones(the preposition,the conjunction,the particle).
In linguistics there exists several parts of speech classifications:
1. Henry Sweet’s
Henry Sweet’s Classification
O. Jesperson’s Classification
Charles Fries’ syntactico-distributional classification of words
Controversial problems of the part-of-speech classification: the Stative
Traditional Modern Classification: MEANING, FORM, FUNCTION
Classification. Acc. to this theory, all the Ws are divided into declinable and indeclinable. Declinable: 1) noun-words: nouns proper, noun-pronoun, noun-numeral (cardinal – hundreds of people), infinitive, gerund; 2) adjective-words – adjective proper, adjective-pronoun, adjective-numeral (ordinal), participle I and II; 3) verb-words – finite verbs, infinitive, gerund, participle I and II.
Indeclinable: adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections.
Subdivision is based on the principle of function.
Therefore some words occurred in two groups simultaneously.
Such classes as pronoun and numerals have no status of their own, but are distributed between nouns and adjectives. The adverb, included into the group of indeclinable words, has degrees of comparison, which means it can change its forms. 2. O. Jesperson’s
Classification. He distributed all the words into 5 parts of speech: 1)Nouns; 2)Adjectives; 3)Pronouns, including numerals and pronominal adverbs (where, why, how, when); 4)Verbs, including verbids or verbals (inf., ger., part.); 5)Particles: particles proper (just, too, enough, only, yet, etc.), prepositions, conjunctions.
The 5th class was a kind of dump where he included the words which didn’t fit into the four previous classes. 3. Charles Fries’
syntactico-distributional classification of words is based on the study of their combinability by means of substitution testing.
The testing results in developing the standard model of four main “positions” of notional words in the English sentence: noun, verb, adjective, adverb.
The words isolated from the records of spontaneous conversation were tested on the three typical sentences (substitution test-frames).
Frame A. The concert was good (always). [The thing and its quality at a given time]
Frame B. The clerk remembered the tax (suddenly). [Actor-action-thing acted upon-characteristic of the action]
Frame C. The team went there. [Actor-action-direction of the action]
As a result of those tests the following lists of words were established:
Class 1. concert, coffee, taste, difference, clerk, husband, team, husband, woman, etc.
Class 2. was, seemed, became, remembered, wanted, went, came, ran, lived, worked, etc.
Class 3. good, large, necessary, foreign, new empty, etc.
Class 4. there, here, always, then, sometimes, clearly, sufficiently, especially, there, back, out, etc.
All these words can fill in the positions of the frames without damage to their general structural meaning. 4. Controversial problems
of the part-of-speech classification: the Stative. The Stative is not universally recognized as a separate part of speech. It is built by the prefix and the root of a word.
awake, applause, ablaze, afraid. It differs from the adjective from the point of view of meaning, function and form. 1. It's meaning is that of the passing state a person or a thing happens to be in (not that of a quality). 2. Its form is unchangeable. 3. Usually the Stative follows a link verb and occasionally a noun (Ex.: man alive). It can follow an adverb (Ex.: fast asleep). Its function is that of the predicative.
Conclusion: It is its own part of speech 5. Traditional Modern Classification
: MEANING, FORM, FUNCTION.The upper level of classification –notional (complete nominative value, changeability, self-dependent syntactic functions) the noun, the adjective, the numeral, the pronoun, the verb, the adverb;; and functional (the opposite) the article, the preposition, the conjunction, the particle, the modal words, the interjection Each part of speech is further subcategorized into lexico-grammatical groups.
The noun is a part of speech denoting thingness in a general seme. Thus nouns name things, living beings, places, materials, processes, states, abstract notions and qualities (kindness).
3. The Noun. Semantic characteristics
Semantically all nouns fall into proper nouns and common nouns.
Proper-geographical names, cities (New York, Asia)
Common-countable and uncountable (a table, a book, water, sugar). Can also be concrete(boy, girl), abstract(idea) and nouns of material(bread, call). Morphological composition
According to the morphological composition nouns can be divided into simple, derived, and compound.
Simple nouns consist of only one root-morpheme: dog, chair.
Derived nouns (derivatives) are composed of one root-morpheme and one or more derivational morphemes (prefixes or suffixes).
Compound nouns consist of at least two stems(seaman, airmail). Morphological characteristics
Morphologically nouns are characterized by the grammatical categories of number and case. Gender does not find regular morphological expression. The distinction of male, female, and neuter may correspond to the lexical meaning of the noun:masculine(boy, man), feminine(girl, woman), neuter(table,house). The category of number
English nouns have singular and plural forms. Singular denotes one, plural denotes more than one. The category of case
English nouns have two cases: the common case and the genitive case. The common case is unmarked, it has no inflexion (zero inflexion). The genitive case is marked by the apostrophe s (‘s). Syntactical functions of the noun
Subject:The ship got under way.
Predicative:He was certainly the best hated man in the ship.
Object:I gave him a pound. Twelve dollars are enough for the man.
Objective predicative:I found him an excellent listener.
Attribute:A dog is a man’s best friend.
Adverbial modifier:High above the city, on a tall column, stood the statue of the Happy Prince.
4. The verb. General.
The verb is a part of speech denoting action or state. However, there are some verbs, which have other meanings – modal verbs, link verbs etc. Grammatical categories.
Tense is a verbal category that reflects the objective category of time & expresses relations between the time of the action and that of the utterance.
Voice – active and passive(object becomes subject).
Mood – there 3 types of mood in eng:
The Indicative shows that what is said must be regarded as a fact (so, it has a wide variety of tense and aspect forms in active and passive forms).
The Imperative expresses a command or request to perform an action, addressed to sb, but not the action itself.
The Subjunctive is the category which is used to express non-facts-unreal actions and facts(here are 3 types of conditionals).
Aspect, in general, shows the way or manner, in which the action is performed,i.e. Whether the action is im/perfective, momentary, durative etc. Continious and common aspect.
Perfect is constituted by the opposition of the perfect and non-perfect. Formation.
Suffixes/prefixes. Conversion(water-to water). Compound combination(to blackmail).
Transitive and intransitive verbs. Transitive are verbs that have direct objects(he invited me), intransitive cant have direct object of their own(I live in Krasnodar).
Detransitive:t-in: open-открывать-(ся), drop-ронять-падать, begin-начинать-(ся), grow-выращивать-расти.
5. Non-finite forms of verbs. Linking verbs
connect the subject and the predicative complement and shows the relationship between them(Tom is a doctor). Main linking verb is BE. Other verbs that can function as linking verbs: become, seem, appear, look, feel, grow, get. Verbals.
All verbs, except modal verbs, have four verbal forms which are called non-finite verb forms or verbals: the infinitive, present participle, past participle, and gerund. Verbals have some properties of the verb, for example, they can have perfect and passive forms and take an object. Verbals also have some properties of the other parts of speech, for example, gerund and infinitive can be used in the function of nouns; present participle and past participle can function as adjectives. The infinitive
is the base form of the verb plus the particle "to": to play, to see, to walk. Bare infinitive (i.e., infinitive without the particle "to") is used after modal verbs and after several other verbs(make, let). The infinitive has several forms: simple / active (to read), passive (to be read), continuous (to be reading), perfect (to have read), perfect continuous (to have been reading). Simple / active and passive infinitive forms are the most common. An infinitive can function as the subject, part of the predicate, object, attribute, adverbial modifier. Present participle
is formed by adding the ending -ing to the base form and is used in the formation of the continuous tenses and perfect continuous tenses: We are reading a new book. Present participle can also function as an adjective: a sleeping child, a dancing girl.
Past participle is formed (regular verbs)by adding the ending -ed to the base form: saved, played, answered; irregular verbs form the past participle mostly by changing the root: sold, written, done. Past participle
is used in the formation of the perfect tenses and tenses in the passive: He has written two letters. Past participle can also function as an adjective: a broken window, a written exam. Gerund
is formed by adding the ending -ing to the base form: smoking. A gerund functions as a noun, for example: Walking is good for your health. Gerunds can be in active, perfect, and passive forms, of which the simple active form is the most common. Examples: He remembers giving the money to that man. He remembers having given the money to that man. That man doesn't remember being given the money. That man doesn't remember having been given the money.
6. The adjective. General.
Adj is a part of speech denoting different states of a noun.
Acc.to the morphological composition
, adjs can be subdivided into:simple-big, derived-beautiful, compound-long-legged. Compound Adjs consist of at least 2 stems. Morphological characteristics.
Adjs in English do not take any endings to express agreement with the head-word. The only pattern of morphological change is that of degrees of comparison(positive, comparative, and superlative).
Acc.to their way of nomination adjectives fall into two groups - qualitative-denote properties of a substance directly (great, cold, beautiful) and relativedescribe properties of a substance through relation to materials (woollen, wooden, feathery, leathern, flaxen), to place (Northern, European, Bulgarian, Italian), to time (daily, monthly, weekly, yearly), to some action (defensive, rotatory, preparatory), or to relationship (fatherly, friendly).
Patterns of combinability. Adjs are combined with several parts of speech. They can be of dif.types and will stand in the following order:judgement or general characterization(nice), size(small), colour(blue), form(round), age(old), limiting adjs(french, left).
7. Adverb. General.
The adverb is a word denoting circumstances or characteristics which attend or modify an action, state, or quality. It may also intensify a quality or characteristics. Morphological composition.
As vary in their structure. There are simple(after, here, well), derived(occasionally, immediately), compound(sometimes, somewhere), and composite as(a great deal, a little bit). Morphological characteristics.
The only pattern of morphological change for adverbs is the same as for adjectives, the degrees of comparison. The three grades are called positive, comparative, and superlative degrees. Semantic characteristics.
According to their meaning adverbs fall into many groups: place(outside, there); time(long, all day, yesterday); frequency (often, now and then);manner: (well, carefully); degree(thoroughly, very, much, badly, greatly). Syntactic functions.
Adverbs may function as adverbial modifiers of manner, place, time, degree to a finite or non-finite form of the verb(He spoke aloud; as adverbial modifiers to an adjective or another adverb. Usually the modifying adverb is an intensifier(very, rather, awfully, so).
8. The Numeral. General.
The numeral denotes an abstract number or the order of thing in succession. They may be cardinal(how many) and ordinal(which one in sequence or return). Morphological composition.
Among the cardinals there are simple(1-12), derived(nineteen. fifty), and compound (twenty-one, forty-four)words. Morphological characteristics.
Numerals do not have morphological categories. Thus the numerals ten (десять), hundred (сто), thousand (тысяча) do not have plural forms.
9. Pronoun. Pronouns
are words which point to objects without naming them. Morphological composition.
They may be of different structure: simple(I, you, he), compound(myself, themselves), and composite(each other, one another). Subclasses of pronouns and their functions.
Semantically all pronouns fall into the following subclasses: Personal pronoun
s are noun-pronouns, indicating persons (I, you, he, we, they) or non-persons (it, they) from the point of view of their relations to the speaker. Thus I (me) indicates the speaker himself, we (us) indicates the speaker together with some other person or persons. Personal pronouns have the category of person, number, case (nominative and objective), and gender, the latter is to be found in the 3rd person only: masculine and feminine is he - him, she - her; neuter case-forms it - it coincide. Possessive
pronouns indicate possession by persons (my, mine, your, yours, their, theirs) or non-persons (its, their, theirs). They comprise two sets of forms: the conjoint forms - my, your, his, her, our, their, which always combine with nouns and premodify them as attributes and the absolute forms - mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs, which do not combine with nouns, but function as their substitutes. Reflexive
pronouns indicate identity between the person or non-person they denote and that denoted by the subject of the sentence. They are: myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselve. Reciprocal
pronouns indicate a mutual relationship between two or more than two persons, or occasionally non-persons (each other, one another) who are at the same time the doer and the object of the same action. Demonstrativ
e pronouns point to persons or non-persons or their properties: this (these), that (those), such. Indefinite
pronouns indicate persons or non-persons or else their properties in a general way without defining the class of objects they belong to, class or properties they possess. They are: some, any, somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, something, anything, one. Negative
pronouns as the term implies render the general meaning of the sentence negative. They are: no, none, nothing, nobody, no one, neither. Detaching
pronouns indicate the detachment of some object from other objects of the same class. There are only two pronouns of this subclass - other, another. Universal
pronouns indicate all objects (persons and non-persons) as one whole or any representative of the group separately. They are: all, both, each, every, everything, everybody, everyone, either. Interrogative
pronouns indicate persons or non-persons or tlieir properties as unknown to the speaker and requiring to be named in the answer. who, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever. Conjunctive
pronouns (whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever) are identical with the interrogative pronouns as to their morphological, referential and syntactical characteristics. They refer to persons and non-persons. The difference between the two subclasses lies in that the conjunctive pronouns, along with their syntactical function in the clause, connect subordinate clauses to the main clause. They are used to connect subject, predicative, and some adverbial clauses, or rather to indicate the subordinate status of these clauses, as the sentence may begin with the clause they introduce. Relative
pronouns refer to persons and non-persons and open attributive clauses which modify words denoting these persons or non-persons. They are who, whose, which, that.
10. Functional parts of speech. A preposition
is a function word indicating a relation between two notional words. Its semantic significance becomes evident when different prepositions are used with one and the same word, as in:to go to the park, to go across the park, to go round the park, to go out of the park. Most of the common English prepositions are simple in structure:out, in, for, on, about. Derived prepositions are formed from other words, mainly participles:excepting, concerning, considering.There are also many compound prepositions:within, outside, upon, onto. A conjunction
is a function word indicating the connection between two notional words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. According to their morphological structure conjunctions fall into the following types:Simple-and, or, but, till, after; Derived-until, unless, seeing; Compound-whereas, wherever; Composite-as well as, in case. The particle
is a part of speech the meaning of which is difficult to define. It either emphasizes or limits the meaning of another word, or phrase, or clause. Particles are invariable and have no syntactical function in the sentence. They form a whole with the part of the sentence (a word or a phrase) they refer to(She lives just round the corner. This book is for advanced students only). - just, even, yet, still, all, simply, only, merely, solely, but, alone, right, exactly, precisely, just, Something else, nobody else, what else, where else, not, also, too. The interjection
is a part of speech which expresses emotions, without naming them:joy (hurray, hurrah),grief, sorrow (alas, dear me, dear, oh),approval (bravo; hear, hear),contempt (pooh, gosh, bosh, pah, bah, fie),triumph (aha),impatience (bother),anger (damn),surprise or annoyance (Goodness gracious, My God).
11. Word order. Word order.
The order of elements in the Eng sentence is fixed to a greater degree than in inflected langs(Rus). The order subject-predicate-object is most characteristic of statements. In any modification of it always justified by either stylistic or communicative considerations. Attributes may proceed or follow head-Ws, the first pattern is more usual. A most peculiar feature of Eng is a special set of Ws, employed a structural substitutes for a certain part of speech(one and that substitute noun, do-verb, so-Adjs and As).
Выполнила Носова Ирина,
студентка факультета ЛиМК, МК-08