Багнюк Г.М., Плиненко В.О., Тульчак Л.В. Збірник лексико-граматичних вправ та текстів англійською мовою для студентів І курсу ІнАЕКСУ ВНТУ - файл n1.doc

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Г.М. Багнюк, В.О. Плиненко, Л.В. Тульчак

ЗБІРНИК ЛЕКСИКО-ГРАМАТИЧНИХ ВПРАВ ТА ТЕКСТІВ АНГЛІЙСЬКОЮ МОВОЮ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТІВ І КУРСУ

ІнАЕКСУ

Міністерство освіти і науки України

Вінницький національний технічний університет




Г.М. Багнюк, В.О. Плиненко, Л.В. Тульчак


ЗБІРНИК ЛЕКСИКО-ГРАМАТИЧНИХ ВПРАВ ТА ТЕКСТІВ АНГЛІЙСЬКОЮ МОВОЮ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТІВ І КУРСУ

ІнАЕКСУ

Затверджено Вченою радою Вінницького національного технічного університету як збірник вправ та текстів для студентів першого курсу ІнАЕКСУ. Протокол № 12 від 29 червня 2006 р.
Вінниця ВНТУ 2007
УДК 811.111

Б 14

Рецензенти:
І.С. Степанова, кандидат філологічних наук, доцент

В.А. Петрук, кандидат педагогічних наук, професор

Л.М. Кім, кандидат філологічних наук, доцент
Рекомендовано до видання Вченою радою Вінницького національного технічного університету Міністерства освіти і науки України


Багнюк Г.М., Плиненко В.О., Тульчак Л.В.

Б 14 Збірник лексико-граматичних вправ та текстів англійською мовою для студентів І курсу ІнАЕКСУ. Збірник вправ та текстів – Вінниця: ВНТУ, 2007.- 153с.
Збірник містить дев’ять уроків, які складаються з кількох лексико-граматичних вправ та текстів, а також п’ять текстів для додаткового читання та англо-український словник.

Мета збірника – забезпечити підготовку студентів першого етапу навчання (І, ІІ триместри) до самостійного читання, розуміння й перекладу оригінальної науково-технічної літератури англійською мовою, а також розвиток навичок усного мовлення.

Призначений для студентів І курсу ІнАЕКСУ.

УДК 811.111

Багнюк Г., Плиненко В., Тульчак Л., 2007



ЗМІСТ


Передмова . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Методичні вказівки до роботи зі збірником . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

LESSON 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

LESSON 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

LESSON 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

LESSON 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

LESSON 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

LESSON 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

LESSON 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

LESSON 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

LESSON 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

109

Supplementary texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

120

List of irregular verbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129

Vocabulary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

132





































Передмова
Даний збірник призначений для студентів І курсу ІнАЕКСУ. Він складений з урахуванням вимог програми цільової підготовки фахівців з іноземної мови і призначений для роботи студентів в аудиторії під керівництвом викладача та поза аудиторією.

Мета текстів спрямована на розвиток навичок самостійного читання у спосіб раціонального використання двомовних словників і збагачення словникового запасу студентів, а також за допомогою аналізу текстів.

Граматично-лексичні вправи мають на меті закріплення та активізацію засвоєння навчального матеріалу, а також розвиток навичок усного й письмового переказу рідною та англійськими мовами, вивчення певних граматичних явищ синтаксичного та структурно-морфологічного характеру. Словотворчі вправи охоплюють усі продуктивні способи словотворення.

В кінці підручника наведено англо-український словник.

Методичні вказівки до роботи зі збірником
Перша частина – 9 уроків, друга – додатковий матеріал, що містить додаткові тексти, таблицю неправильних дієслів, словник.

Кожен урок містить три тексти, які об’єднані спільною тематикою. Всі вони призначені для навчання різним видам читання. Перший текст уроку є основним і підлягає ретельній обробці і аналізу для вивчення тих граматичних і лексичних явищ, що розглядаються в уроці. Другий та третій тексти слугують розвитку навичок читання і отримання необхідної інформації, а також навичок бесіди з відповідної тематики, що сприяє закріпленню лексико-граматичного матеріалу, що пророблявся в основному тексті.

Кожен урок-тема починається з перед текстових вправ для роботи з граматичним і лексичним матеріалом. Вправи складені на основі лексики попередніх уроків. Вправи після основного тексту надані для закріплення граматичного і лексичного матеріалу.

Вправи на словотворення містять, в основному, активну лексику. Для практичного використання набутих знань студентам потрібно володіти умінням самостійно працювати над мовою. Тому автори знайшли необхідним ввести спеціальну серію вправ для самостійної роботи.

Додаткові тексти з тематики лексики пов’язані з основними текстами уроків. Вони призначені для самостійної і індивідуальної роботи та можуть бути використані як додатковий матеріал при проведенні дискусій, бесід, конференцій.

В кінці розміщено словник. Він містить всі слова, що зустрічаються в текстах і вправах.

LESSON 1
Дієслова to be, to have

Часи групи Indefinite (Simple) Active, Passive

Зворот there + be

Порядок слів у реченні

Суфікси -tion, -ic, -al, -ly

Text 1A. Higher Education in Russia

Text 1B. Cambridge

Text 1С. Higher Education in the USA

Вправа 1. Поставте подані нижче речення у Past Indefinite або Future Indefinite, додаючи, де необхідно, слова last/next week, last/next year, tomorrow, yesterday і т.д.
1. I am very busy today. 2. They are in the reading-room now. 3. It is a cold day today. 4. We are students of one of the Vinnitsya Universities. 5. You are late for the lecture. 6. Mary is a good student. 7. Students have four exams in January. 8. Today they have time to go to the cinema. 9. We have some English magazines. 10. The book has many diagrams. 11. I have good news. 12. She has a map of England.
Вправа 2. Поставте подані нижче речення у Past і Future Indefinite, додаючи слова yesterday, tomorrow и т.д.
1. There is a large reading-room in our university. 2. There are thirty students in our group. 3. There is a new film in our club today. 4. There is one telephone in our office. 5. There are many students at the lecture.
Вправа 3. Поставте подані нижче речення у Past або Future Indefinite, додаючи слова last/next year, yesterday, tomorrow, last/next week, last/next summer і т. д.
1. We study five days a week. 2. I go to the University every day. 3. My friend lives in a hostel. 4. Usually I get up at 7 o'clock. 5. My studies begin at half past eight. 6. We have four lectures every day. 7. After lectures we go to the dinning room. 8. We do our homework for the next day. 9. At night I read and watch TV. 10. On Sunday I visit my friends.


Вправа 4. Поставте присудок в заперечну форму.
1. Today our lectures begin at 10 o'clock in the morning. 2. We were school-children last year. 3. We had four entrance exams in summer. 4. Yesterday the first-year students saw the institute labo­ratories. 5. We took all the necessary books from the library. 6.I got excellent marks for my entrance exams. 7. He knows the meaning of the word «engineering» (техніка, машинобудування, інженерна справа). 8. The students of our group will meet in the laboratory. 9. The librarian gave us all the necessary books.
Вправа 5. А. Розкрийте дужки, поставивши загальні питання.
1. (You do)... anything interesting last weekend? 2. (He works) at the institute every day? 3. (They will come) ... to see you soon? 4. (We studied) ... at school last year? 5. (She will go) ... to the theatre next week? 6. (The students worked) ... in the labora­tory yesterday? 7. (Ann gets up) ... at 7 o'clock? 8. (There are) ... many laboratories at our institute? 9. (There were) ... many stu­dents at the lecture? 10. (There will be) ... a library in the new building? 11. (We have)... two lectures today? 12. (The book has) ... many diagrams? 13. (You had) ... four exams last semester?
В. Вставте відповідні питальні слова.
1. ... is your name? 2. ... doesn't understand this grammar rule? 3. ... of you studies French? 4. ... is the answer to my ques­tion? 5. ... do you live? 6. ... were you born? 7. ... lec­tures you on mathematics? 8. ... do you study? 9. Here are the books. ... is yours? 10. ... knows the answer to this question?
Вправа 6. Поставте питання до кожного члена речення і дайте заперечну форму.
1. Не entered the Aviation Institute last year. 2. My sister stud­ies at the university. 3. The third-year students will have industrial training next summer.
Вправа 7. Прочитайте і перекладіть текст.
My University
There are many universities in Vinnitsya. The head of a university is Rector. Usually there are several faculties in a university. Each faculty has a number of specialized departments and is headed by dean. The course of studies lasts (триває) 5—6 years.

The academic year in this country's higher schools begins on the 1-st of September and is divided into two terms (semesters). Students take exams at the end of each semester. If the results of the examinations are good, students get grants. Twice a year students have vacations — two weeks in winter and two months in summer.

My University has several buildings, old and new ones. There are many various laboratories. There is a very good library and a computer center in the main building.

Every faculty has its own specialized library, laboratories, workshops and computer centers.

The first- and second-year students study general engineering subjects (загальнотехнічні предмети). In the third year students begin to study specialized subjects.

A very good tradition of our University is that theory is accom­panied by practical training. Students begin to work at the University's well-equipped (має гарне устаткування) laboratories and in senior years at various plants, design offices and research institutes of this country.

It is interesting but difficult to study at our University, especially for the first-year students as they do not know yet how to organize their work and time.
Вправа 8. Перекладіть речення, поставте їх в питальну і, де можливо, в заперечну форму.
1. The books are taken from the library. 2. He was asked to help one of our students. 3. Many newspapers and magazines are pub­lished in this country. 4. That problem was discussed at our meet­ing. 5. The diagrams were brought by our monitor. 6. The exams will be taken in January. 7. They were told to do their work quickly. 8. The study of theory is accompanied by practical training. 9. A new laboratory was opened last year. 10. We shall be given a new task University tomorrow. 11. Every institute is headed by Rector. 12. In sum­mer you will be sent to a big plant for your industrial training.

1. This work must be done quickly. 2. Many complex problems can be solved with the help of computers. 3. Lomonosov may be called the founder of higher education in Russia. 4. Books on this subject can be found in every library. 5. Many basic subjects must be studied by the first and second-year students.
СЛОВОТВОРЕННЯ
Вправа 9. Перекладіть подані нижче похідні слова:
дієслово + tion = іменник

to examine перевіряти, екзаменувати ? examination екзамен

to apply —застосовувати, використовувати ? application

застосування, використання

to educate — education; to adopt — adoption; to graduate — graduation; to specialize — specialization; to organize — organi­zation;

іменник+ al = прикметник

industry — industrial; profession — professional; person — personal;

іменник + ic — прикметник

science наука ? scientific науковий;

basis — основа ? basic основний

прикметник + lyприслівник high високий ? highly високо

quick — quickly; usual — usually.
Вправа 10. Прочитайте та перекладіть інтернаціональні слова.
qualification, qualified ['kwPlIfaId], speciality [,speSI'xlItI], specialist, special, specialize, engineer [enGI'nIq], serious ['sIqrIqs], adoptĺion, style [staIl], method ['meTqd], distance, sys­tem, foundation, satellite ['sxtqlaIt], course [kLs], instruction, mathematics [,mxTI'mxtIks], physics ['fizIks], chemistry ['kemIstrI], history, economics, to concentrate ['kOnsqntreIt], bachelor ['bxCqlq], sport center, basic, exchange.
Вправа 11. Прочитайте та запам’ятайте вимову наступних слів.
high [haI], higher education, highly-qualified, important [Im'pLtqnt], provide [prq'vaId], development [dI'velqpment], process ['prquses], progress ['prqugres], steadily ['stedIlI], enough [I'nAf], through [TrH], thorough ['TArq], quality ['kwOlItI], natural ['nxCrql], science ['saIqns], scientist ['saIqntIst], require [rI'kwaIq], curricula [kq'rIkjulq], foreign ['fOrIn], major ['meIGq], future ['fjHCq], further ['fWDq], re­search [rI'sWC], enterprise ['entqpraIz], know [nqu], knowledge ['nOlIG], graduate ['grxdjueIt].
СЛОВА І СЛОВОСПОЛУЧЕННЯ ДЛЯ ЗАПАМ’ЯТОВУВАННЯ


as conj — як, оскільки

as well — також

affect v — впливати

become v — становитися

consider v — вважати, розглядати, враховувати


develop v — розвивати, розробляти

development nрозвиток, розробка

enable v — давати можливість

ensure v — забезпечувати, гарантувати
especially adv — особливо

further aподальший

improve v — покращувати, вдосконалювати

mean (meant) v — значити

means n — засіб

number nчисло

a number of — низка, декілька

prepare v — готувати, підготовлювати

provide v — забезпечувати, постачати

receive v — отримувати

remain v — залишати

quality n — якість

thorough aдоскональний, ретельний

usually adv — зазвичай

to play a part — грати роль

to take into consideration — брати

до уваги

at present — в теперішній час
Text 1A
Прочитайте і перекладіть текст.
Higher Education in Ukraine
Higher education plays an important part in the life of any country as it provides the country with highly-qualified specialists for future development and progress. It trains people to become teachers, engineers, doctors and other professional workers.

In all the industrial countries standards of living are steadily changing; this means that the kind of education, which was good enough thirty years ago, is not necessarily good for them today. The serious need to find ways and means of ensuring continuous and thorough adoption of the universities to contemporary needs in our rapidly changing world is widely recognized. And this means that styles of teaching, quality of learning materials1 and organization of the university itself have to be continuously brought up to date2 and improved.

Besides, knowledge and information which comes through the mass media must also be taken into consideration. This informa­tion explosion3 has affected every field of study, especially, of course, in the natural and applied sciences and in all other sciences as well. The increase of information requires new methods and new approaches to students' training and instruction4.

At present a new system of education is introduced in this country — a distance education system. This computer system of learning helps working professionals to continue their education while remaining at their jobs. This system enables people to get knowledge and a good foundation in the sciences basic to his or her field of study. Distance learning has developed over years5 from satellite video courses to modern videoconferencing through per­sonal computers.

The academic year usually lasts 9 months and is divided into two terms (semesters). The first- and second-year students obtain thorough instructions in the fundamental sciences of mathematics, physics, chemistry and drawing as well as computer engineering and a number of others. The curricula are enriched and broadened6 by instructions in such subjects as foreign languages, history and economics.

At the third year students get more advanced knowledge and begin to concentrate on their special interests, so to say, their «ma­jor» subject and take many courses in this subject. Specialized study and courses will help students to become specialists and prepare them for their future work.

After four years students will get a bachelor's degree. Then the students may go on with their studies and in a year or two of further study and research get a master's degree. After graduating from the university they may go on with their study and research and may get a still higher degree.

About 75 percent of students receive state grants and 15 percent are sponsored by enterprises. Universities have their own students' hostels and some of them have large and excellent sport centers.

Education is a process through which culture is preserved, knowledge and skills are developed, values are formed, and infor­mation is exchanged.

Education is the way to success.
Notes to the Text
1. learning materials — навчальний матеріал

2. to bring up to date — довести до сучасних умов

3. information explosion — інформаційний вибух

4. training and instruction — підготовка навчання

5. over years — за багато років

6. curricula are enriched and broadened — програми (курси навчання) збагачуються і поширюються
ВПРАВИ
Вправа 12. Продивіться вправу 7 і текст 1А, дайте відповіді на питання.
1. When does the academic year begin in this country? 2. How many exams did you pass to enter the University? 3. Do you pay for your education? 4. Do students get grants? 5. What subjects do stu­dents study in the first year? 6. Which subject is the most interest­ing for you? 7. Is there a sport center in your University? 8. What degree do students get after four years of study? 9. What degree can a student get after two years of further study and research? 10. What new education system is introduced in this country? 11. What spe­cialities do people get after graduating from a university? 12. Why is higher education important in the life of every country?
Вправа 13. Порівняйте речення в активному і пасивному стані, перекладіть їх.
1. Students asked the lecturer many questions. The lecturer was asked many questions. 2. The monitor told the first-year students to come to the laboratory. The first-year students were told to come to the laboratory. 3. Usually a lab assistant shows the equipment to the students. Usually the equipment is shown to the students by a lab assistant. Usually students are shown the equipment by a lab assistant. 4. Students watched the process with great attention. The process was watched with great attention. 5. Tomorrow our teacher will give us a new task. A new task will be given tomorrow. We shall be given a new task tomorrow. 6. Practice accompanies theory. Theory is accompanied by practice. 7. He asked me to bring a dic­tionary. He was asked to bring a dictionary. 8. The teacher told the students to sign their drawings. The students were told to sign their drawings. 9. The dean will send the students to a big plant in sum­mer. The students will be sent to a big plant in summer. 10. He taught us to use the lab equipment. We were taught to use the lab equipment.
Вправа 14. А. Переробіть речення з активного в пасивний стан.
1. You open the door. 2. We asked questions. 3. He will finish his project next week. 4. He can do this exercise. 5. They invited me to their conference. 6. I saw a new film. 7. My sister writes letters regularly. 8. Universities develop new methods of students' train­ing. 9. After graduating from the University the students may get a still higher degree. 10. The study of foreign languages, history and economics must improve the curricula of technological universities.
В. Перекладіть речення в пасивному стані, дайте варіанти, де можливо.
1. Mathematics, strength of materials, mechanics, elements of machines as well as engineering physics are studied at technologi­cal institutes. 2. The development of science is closely connected with the development of higher education. 3. Students are provided with hostels, well-equipped laboratories and libraries. 4. Any coun­try must be provided with good specialists in all branches of sci­ence and technology for its further development. 5. Large sums of money are spent by the state to train highly-qualified engineers. 6. Much attention must be paid to improve the standards of higher education. 7. Students of technological institutes are trained to analyse various facts and theories. 8. The scientific and techno­logical progress of a country is determined by the qualification of specialists. 9. Some institutes of technology are reorganized into universities. 10.The country must be provided with specialists ca­pable of working with the technology of tomorrow effectively.
ВПРАВИ ДЛЯ САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ
Вправа 15. Визначте за суфіксом, до якої частини мови відносяться такі слова:
administration, gradual, electric, intensively, practical, dra­matic, integral, specific, operation, illumination, naturally, identi­cal, organization, originally, arctic, technical, acceleration.
Вправа 16. Знайдіть в тексті 1А слова с суфіксами -tiоп, -al, -ic, -ly і перекладіть їх.
Вправа 17. Знайдіть форми дієслова, що можуть бути присудками в реченні:
student, many, will be passed, doing, technical, has, reports, studied, interesting, connected, are, were done, large, is, tasks, de­veloped, is read, coming, texts, badly, giving, had, was made possi­ble, are given, forms, necessary, teaches, basis, was, done.
Вправа 18. Знайдіть:
а) антоніми

to begin, to enter, young, large, to open, to take, quick, much, to graduate from, many, long, slow, little, to finish, old, small, to close, to give, few, short;
б) синоніми

new, large, many, to begin, to take, to speak, to enter, to build, to do, to get, modern, big, to start, much, to make, main, to talk, to construct, to come into, major.
Вправа 19. Складіть речення з наведених нижче слів згідно з порядком слів в англійському реченні.
1. has, buildings, our, several, institute. 2. subjects, students, many, the first-year, study. 3. the third-year, had, last, students, training, industrial, summer. 4. carry out, students, practical, work, in, laboratories, well-equipped. 5. problems, many, scientists, important, solve, our. 6. texts, difficult, Pylypenko, technical, translated. 7. his, will, the teacher, translation, correct. 8. next, dean, a lecture, deliver, our, week, will. 9. students, more, insti­tutes, last, entered, a million, than, year.
Вправа 20. Заповніть пропуски дієсловами to be, to have в відповідному часі.
1. Our University ... one of the oldest technological institutes in this coun­try. 2. It... founded in 1830. 3. It... old and new buildings. 4. There ... laboratories, workshops and libraries in our institute. 5. Every faculty ... its own computer center. 6. Our library ... a great number of books and magazines in all branches of science and technology. 7. Last year we ... at school, next year we ... the second year stu­dents. 8. We ... industrial training in the third year.
Вправа 21. Виберіть правильну форму.
1. Entrance exams (held, are held) in summer. .2. More than 20 new technological institutes (were founded, founded) in the last decade. 3. Basic engineering subjects (studied, are studied) in the first and second years. 4. Highly-qualified specialists (trained, are trained) at higher schools. 5. More than a million students (enroled, were enroled) to the institutes and universities of this country last summer. 6. The training of specialists (will be im­proved, will improve) as a result of restructuring in the next few years.
Вправа 22. Напишіть відповіді на питання згідно зі зразком:
Are there two presidents in the United States? No, there are not. There are not two presidents in the United States. There is one president in the United States.
1. Are there thirteen months in a year? 2. Are there eight days in a week? 3. Are there fifty minutes in a hour? 4. Are there sev­enty seconds in a minute? 5. Are there forty days in a month? 6. Are there thirty days in February? 7. Are there thirty-two days in January? 8. Are there five seasons in a year?
Вправа 23. Виберіть відповідні займенники.
А. 1. (We, us) all went with (their, them) to the dean's office. 2. My friend came to see (I, me) last night. 3. Victor gave Peter and (I, me) a book and we went to the reading-room with (he, him) and his friend. 4. He told Mary and (me, I) to go with (he, him) and his sister. 5. They know all about my friend and (I, me). 6. I came to the Institute with Michael and (her, she). 7. An old man asked (we, us) to come and see (him, his). 8. Go with David and (her, she) to visit (they, them).

B. They invited me to (them, their) party. 2. He could not an­swer (his, her) teacher. 3. They were (your, you) former students. 4. You are (us, our) colleagues. 5. This is (my, me) brother. 6. Ann went to (his, her) room and put on (his, her) new dress because she was going to a dance given by (his, her) company. 7. Where is the dictionary? (He, it) is in (his, its) place on the table.

C. 1. Your dictionary is new, but (my, mine) is not. 2. She says that this dictionary is (her, hers). 3. You can do it without my help, but not without (theirs, their). 4. Will you help me to sort out the things? I cannot tell which are (your, yours) and which are (our, ours). 5. He is an old friend of (me, mine). 6. Do you know your lesson today? He does not know (him, his). 7. This is your note­book and this is his, but where is (her, hers)?
Вправа 24. Викажіть згоду або незгоду.
1. Do you study at school? 2. Are you a student of the third year? 3. Do you study many subjects? 4. Did you pass your en­trance exams well? 5. Do you live in Moscow? 6. Do you live far from the institute? 7. Is English your favourite subject? 8. Will you go to the concert tomorrow? 9. Were your books taken from the li­brary? 10. Do you live in the hostel?
Вправа 25. Заповніть пропуски прийменниками in, at, on, to, into, under.
1. We live ... Vinnitsya. 2. I get up ... seven o'clock and leave ... eight. 3. I usually walk ... the institute. 4. There are three rooms ... our flat. 5. There is a picture ... the wall and a small table ... the picture. 6. He comes ... the room and sits down ... the chair ... the table. 7. ... the evening we watch TV or read books. 8. We do not study... Sunday. 9. There are several newspapers ... the table. 10. The accident happened ... the bridge.
Вправа 26. Прочитайте та перекладіть текст без словника.
As you know higher education trains highly-qualified specialists for further development and progress of the country. The students making good progress get state grants. The course of study at the universities lasts about six years. The students take three or four years of general engineering and fundamental courses, then one or two years of specialized training in some fields of science and tech­nology. In the first and second years a good foundation for profes­sional knowledge is provided. At present there are many modern laboratories at institutes. Most higher schools have their own com­puter centers. This means that the state must spend a lot of money to improve higher education.

CONVERSATION
Exercise 1. Answer the questions.
1. How old are you now? 2. Where were you born? 3. What city did you come from? 4. Where did you go to school? 5. What foreign language did you study at school? 6. How long did you study at school? 7. Why did you enter this institute? 8. What are your fa­vourite subjects at the institute? 9. Where do you live? 10. Do you live with your family? 11. How do you usually spend your Satur­day and Sunday? 12. What did you do last weekend? 13. What are you going to do next weekend? 14. What is your favourite sport? 15. What is your hobby? 16. Where do you usually spend your summer vacation? 17. When do you usually get up in the morn­ing? 18. At what time do you usually leave home? 19. How do you usually get to the institute?
Exercise 2. Read and learn.
Ted's instructor: Hello Ted. I'm glad I saw you before lectures. Did you know about the change in the examination timetable?

Ted: Change?

Ted's ins.: Yes. The last day of examinations for your group will be January 23rd not January 21st.

Ted: Is that definite (определенно, точно)? We were told they'd be on January 22nd.

Ted's ins.: There can be no changes now. It's definitely January 23rd.

Ted: That's great. I'm going to London on holiday on January 24th.

Ted's ins.: Have you finished your assignment (домашнее задание) yet?

Ted: I'm nearly there. I think I'll give it to you on Tuesday.

Ted's ins.: That's good. I can't let you have another extension (відстрочка).

Ted: I was really grateful for the extra time you gave me. That was a really big assignment. Ted's ins.: Well, I'll expect it next week. Now, would you like to hear the details of the schedule?

Ted: Oh. Yes, please.

Ted's ins.: You'll have four examinations. General mechanics is in the morning of January 8th, physics is on the afternoon of January 13th, maths is on the morning of January 18th, and information technology in the afternoon of

January 23rd.

Mr.R.: Good morning. Have a seat.

Bob: Good morning. Thank you.

Mr. R.: I have your application here. Your name is Robert Smith, right?

В.: That's right, sir.

Mr. R.: And you hope to enter our university this year?

В.: Yes sir, if I can make it.

Mr. R.: Fine, Bob. You finished school a year ago. Why didn't you enter college that year?

В.: Well, I have a sister in college now. And there is another one who'll be going next year. So I need money to pay for my education.

Mr. R.: All right. How were your grades (оцінка) at school?

В.: Well, pretty good. Until my last year I got a little too in-

terested in sports. But I know I'll work hard in college.

Mr. R.: It's hard to keep up both sports and studies.

В.: Yes sir, I know.

Mr. R.: Fine. Well, we'll let you know in about two weeks, good luck (вдачі).

В.: Thank you, sir. Goodbye.

Text 1B
Прочитайте текст. Розкажіть про особливості навчання в Кембриджському університеті.
Cambridge
Cambridge is one of the two main universities of England which is located at the Cam River. It was founded at the beginning of the 12th century. The University consists of (складається з) 24 different colleges including 4 colleges for women. Each college is self-governing (самокерується).

The head of the University is the chancelor who is elected for life. The teachers are commonly called «dons» and «tutors». Part of the teaching is by means of lectures organized by the University. Besides lectures teaching is carried out by tutorial system for which Cambridge University is famous all over the world. This is a system of individual tuition (навчання) organized by the colleges.

Each student has a tutor who practically guides him through the whole course of studies. The tutor plans the student's work and once a week the student goes to his tutor to discuss his work with him. The training course lasts 4 years. The academic year is divided into 3 terms. The students study natural and technical sciences, law, history, languages, geography and many other subjects.

After three years of study a student may proceed (отримати вчену ступінь) to a Bachelor's degree, and later to the degrees of Master and Doctor. Students are required to wear gowns (мантія) at lectures, in the University library, in the street in the evening, for dinners in the colleges and for official visits. All the students must pay for their education, examinations, books, laboratories, univer­sity hostel, the use of libraries, etc. Very few students get grants. Not many children from the working class families are able to get higher education, as the cost is high. The cost of education depends on the college and speciality.

A number of great men, well-known scientists and writers stud­ied at Cambridge. Among them are: Erasmus, the great Dutch scholar, Bacon, the philosopher, Milton and Byron, the poets, Cromwell, the soldier, Newton and Darwin, the scientists.

Text 1С
Прочитайте текст. Розкажіть про особливості системи вищої освіти в нашій країні і в США.
Higher Education in the USA
There is no national system of higher education in the United States. Higher education is given in colleges and universities. There are over 2100 various higher educational institutions, including colleges, technological institutes and universities. The average col­lege course of study is 4 years. The academic year is usually 9 months or 2 terms (semesters) of four and a half months each. Classes usually begin in September and end in June. The first-year students are called freshmen. Students choose a major subject (профілюючий предмет, дісципліна) and take many courses in this subject. After four years, they get a traditional Bachelor's degree. Then the students may go on to graduate school (старші курси) and with a year or two of further study get a Master's degree.

After another year or two of study and research, they may get a still higher degree as Doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D.). The student's progress is evaluated by means of tests, term works and final exami­nations in each course. The student's work is given a mark, usually on a five point scale (5-ти бальна система). Letters indicate the level of achievement. «A» is the highest mark. «F» denotes a failure.

Most American colleges and universities charge for tuition. The methods of instruction in the universities are lectures, discussions, laboratory and course works and seminars.

Most cities have colleges or universities that hold classes at night as well as in daytime. In this way people may work for a de­gree or just take a course in the subject that interests them.


LESSON 2
Часи групи Continuous Active, Passive

Функції it, one, that

Ступені порівняння прикметників

Суфікси -ment, -ty, -ous

Префікс re-

Text 2A. Environment Protection must be Global

Text 2B. Pollution

Text 2C. Ecological Problems of Big Cities

Text 2D. London, its History and Development
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