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Chapter one. Proverbs in English language
Phraseology as a subsystem of language
Phraseological units and their types
Proverbs as a phraseological unit
Chapter two. Semantic characteristics of proverbs
Classification of proverbs
Types of proverbs on meanings motivation
2.3. Proverbs as the way expressing people's wisdom and spirit and
The list of the used literature
In folklore among all the variety and richness of its poetical significance and form it is difficult to find more interesting and researchable genre than proverbs and sayings. It was the subject of deep study of scientists in most different ideological branches. Most of the scientists agreed that the pro verbs are folklore speech. Where was not only the person's point of view but also general people's outlook is expressed. Proverbs and sayings play important role in language. They give emotionality, expressiveness to the speech. They have certain pure linguistic features that must always be taken into account in order to distinguish them from ordinary sentences. Proverbs are brief statements showing uncondensed form of the accumulated life experience of the community and serving as conventional practical symbols for abstract ideas. They are usually didactic and image bearing. Many of them become very polished and there is no extra word in proverbs and sayings. Summarizing above mentioned information the following definition can be given to a proverb: It is a short, meaningful has the rhythmic organization in poetic style - that people had created for centuries in their social and historical life. The actuality
of the study of the proverbs
in Uzbek, English is that the usage of proverbs in speech is very important. The correct usage of these proverbs is also important, while translating any other work of art we should pay close attention to this point, and that is the reason of the study of the theme we have taken under discussion. So express any idea or plot of the work in translation as in original demands a person's high skill and deep knowledge. Translator ought to know the rules of translation, furthermore the history, slang, life, customs and traditions of the people whose language he / she translating into. The novelty of
this qualification paper
is that the analysis of the problem of the folk proverbs have been taken under discussion in related and non related languages. Modem and classic writers' works have been used in collecting the examples. The qualification paper also includes the Shakespeareans and other proverbs used by
English poets. The aim of the qualification paper is to study the proverbs and to distinguish the cultural features in every language that was taken under discussion. This qualification paper mainly discusses the Uzbek proverbs and their translation into foreign languages. The aim of the qualification paper is:
The following task has been solved in this qualification paper:
to give the definition of the phraseological units;
to classify proverbs and sayings ;
to show the difference of proverbs and sayings;
The practical value of this paper
To deal with the history of the proverbs and analyze them. To show their components or equivalents if they exist in compared languages, and the ways of their translation.
To point out the difference between proverbs and sayings.
To research the structural type of English proverbs, to differ in the groups of types of proverbs according to their equivalents and synonymic row.
is that, practical result and all the given examples can be used in practical lessons, writing compositions in colloquial and written speech. This qualification paper also can be useful to other students who are' interested in this field as in this qualification paper there is given the table of the most often used proverbs in English. The theoretical value of the qualification
paper is to investigate the structural types of proverbs and sayings in English, to give their equivalents in related and related languages, to analyze and differentiate proverbs and sayings in investigated languages. The structure of this qualification paper
is as follows: introduction, main part, conclusion, the list of used literature.
Introduction, main part, conclusion and the list of used literature.
The introduction is the brief plot of the qualification paper theme, and also it gives us information about the structure of the qualification paper.
The main part consists of two chapters Chapter one
has three paragraphs: phraseology as a subsystem of language, a short information about phraseological units, the proverbs and sayings and their definitions.
Chapter two includes three paragraphs which deal with the problems of the study of the history of the origin of proverbs and sayings,
scientists who worked on proverbs and sayings, the semantic classes of proverbs and sayings.
Conclusion deals with the theoretical and practical result of the work.
The list of used literature directs us to the list of literatures that have been used in carrying out the work. The sources of the qualification paper.
While investigating the diploma work we have widely used the following literature: 'Фразеология английского языка' by V. A. Koonin, textbooks on lexicology, on stylistics, scientific literature on • phraseology and phraseological units, books on origin and translation of proverbs and sayings in English, A universal proverb definition. Scholars around the world continue to find their own so-called "working definitions," of which some of the most recent attempts in the English language are those by Shirley Arora, Nigel Barley, Otto Blehr, Margaret Bryant, David Cram, Alan Dundes, Galit Hasan-Rokem, George Milner, Peter Seitel, Jan Fredrik Kindstrand "The Greek Concept of Proverbs," Bartlett Jere Whiting, "The Nature of the Proverb." 1932, V.I. Dal “dictionary of vivid Russian language”, V.L Dai "the proverbs of Russian nation" , Benjamin Franklin 'Poor Richard's Almanac', The Advanced Learner's Dictionary
by A. Hornby, E. Gatenby, H. Wake-field; The Universal English Dictionary
by H. Wild and Л General Service List of English Words with Semantic Frequencies
by M, West, English idioms in: Logan Smith. Words and Idioms. London,
Word-Groups and Phraseological Units' and a lot other work of scientists. We have also had information on internet sites.CHAPTER I. PROVERBS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE
PHRASEOLOGY AS A SUBSYSTEM OF LANGUAGE
By phraseology I mean the branch of linguistics dealing with stable word- combinations characterized by certain transference of meaning.
Despite differences of opinion, most authors agree upon some points concerning the distinctive features of phraseological units, such as:
Integrity (or transference) of meaning means that none of the idiom components is separately associated with any referents of objective reality, and the meaning of the whole unit cannot be deduced from the meanings of its components;
Stability (lexical and grammatical) means that no lexical substitution is possible in an idiom in comparison with free or variable word-combinations (with an exception of some cases when such substitutions are made by the author intentionally). The experiments conducted in the 1990s showed that, the meaning of an idiom is not exactly identical to its literal paraphrase given in the dictionary entry. That is why we may speak about lexical flexibility of many units if they are used in a creative manner. Lexical stability is usually accompanied by grammatical stability which prohibits any grammatical changes;
Separability means that the structure of an idiom is not something indivisible, certain modifications are possible within certain boundaries. Here we meet with the so-called lexical and grammatical variants. To illustrate this point I shall give some examples: "as hungry as a wolf (as a hunter)", "as safe as a house (houses)" in English, «как (будто, словно, точно) в воду опушенный», «оседлать своего (любимого) конька», «раскидывать умом (мозгами) Раскинуть (пораскинуть) умом (мозгами)» in Russian.
Expressivity and emotiveness means that idioms are also characterized by stylistic colouring. In other words, they evoke emotions or add expressiveness.
On the whole phraseological units, even if they present a certain pattern, do not generate new phrases. They are unique.
Interlanguage comparison, the aim of which is the exposure of phraseological conformities, forms the basis of a number of theoretical and applied trends of modern linguistic research, including the theory and practice of phraseography. But the question of determining the factors of interlanguage phraseological conformities as the main concept and the criterion of choosing phraseological equivalents and analogues as the aspect concepts is still at issue.
The analysis of special literature during the last decades shows that the majority of linguists consider the coincidence of semantic structure, grammatical (or syntactical) organization and componential (lexeme) structure the main criteria in defining the types of interlanguage phraseological conformities/disparities with the undoubted primacy of semantic structure.
Comparing the three approaches discussed above (semantic, functional, and contextual) we have ample ground to conclude that have very much in common as, the main criteria of phraseological units appear to be essentially the same, i.e. stability and idiomaticity or lack of motivation. It should be noted however that these criteria as elaborated in the three approaches are sufficient mainly to single out extreme cases: highly idiomatic non-variable and free (or variable) word- groups.
Thus red tape, mare's nest,
etc. According to the semantic approach belong to phraseology and are described as fusions as they are completely non-motivated. According to the functional approach they are also regarded as phraseological units because of their grammatical (syntactic) inseparability and because they function, in speech as word-equivalents. According to the contextual approach red tape, mare's nest,
etc. make up a group of phraseological units referred to as idioms because of the impossibility of any change m the 'fixed context' and their semantic inseparability.
The status of the bulk of word-groups however cannot be decided with certainty with the help of these criteria because as a rule we have to deal not with соmp1ete idiomaticity and stability but with a certain degree of these distinguishing features of phraseological units. No objective criteria of the degree of idiomaticity and stability have as yet been suggested. Thus, e.g., to win a victory
according to the semantic approach is a phraseological combination because it is almost completely motivated and allows of certain variability to win, to gain, a victory.
According to the functional approach it is not a phraseological unit as the degree of semantic and grammatical inseparability is insufficient for the word-group to function as a
word-equivalent. Small hours
according to the contextual approach it is literal meaning. If however we classify it proceeding from the functional approach is a word-groups which are partially motivated is decided differently depending on which of the criteria of phraseological units is applied.
There is still another approach to the problem of phraseology in which an attempt is made to overcome the shortcoming of the phraseological theories discussed above. The main features of this new approach which is now more or less universally accepted by Soviet linguists are as follows:1
Phraseology is regarded as a self-contained branch of linguistics and, not as a part of lexicology.
Phraseology deals with a phraseological subsystem of language and not with isolated phraseological units.
3. Phraseology is concerned with all types of set expressions.
4. Set expressions are divided into three classes: phraseological units (e.g. red tape, mare's nest,
etc.), phraseomatic units (e.g. win a victory, launch
a campaign, etc.)
and borderline cases belonging to the mixed class. The main distinction between the first and the second classes is semantic: phraseological units have fully or partially transferred meanings while components of, phraseomatic units are used in their literal meanings.
Phraseological and phraseomatic units are not regarded as word- equivalents but some of them are treated as word correlates.
Phraseological and phraseomatic units are set expressions and their phraseological stability distinguishes them from free phrases and compound words.
Phraseological and phraseomatic units are made up of words of different degree of wordness depending on the type of set expressions they are used in. (cf. e.g. small hours and red tape). Their structural separateness, an important factor of their stability, distinguishes them from compound words (cf. E.g. blackbird and black market).
Other aspects of their stability are: stability of use, lexical stability and semantic stability.
Stability of use means that set expressions are reproduced ready-made and not created in speech. They are not elements of individual style of speech but language units.
Lexical stability means that the components of set expressions are either irreplaceable (e.g. red tape, mare's nest) or party replaceable within the bounds of phraseological or phraseomatic variance: lexical (e.g. a skeleton in the cupboard – a skeleton in the closet).grammatical (e.g. to be in deep water – to be in deep waters), positional (e.g. head over ears – over head and ears), quantitative (e.g. to lead smb a dance- to lead smb a pretty dance), mixed variants (e.g. raise (stir up) a hornets' nest about one's ears- arouse (stir up) the nest of hornets).
Semantic stability is based on the lexical stability of set expressions. Even when occasional changes are introduced the meaning of set expression is preserved. It may only be specified, made more precise, weakened or strengthened. In other words in spite of all occasional phraseological and phraseomatic units, as distinguished from free phrases, remain semantically invariant or are destroyed. For example, the substitution of the verbal component in the free phrase to raise a question by the verb to settle (to settle a question) changes the meaning of the phrase, no such change occurs in to raise (stir up) a hornets' nest about one's ears.
An integral part of this approach is a method of phraseological identification which helps to single out set expressions in Modern English.
The diachronic aspect of phraseology has scarcely been investigated. Just a few points of interest may be briefly reviewed in connection with the origin of phraseology has scarcely been investigated. Just a few points of interest may be briefly reviewed in connection with the origin of phraseological units and the ways they appear in language. It is assumed that almost all phrases can be traced back to free word-groups which in the course of the historical development of the English language have acquired semantic and grammatical process of grammaticalization or lexicalization.
Cases of grammaticalization may be illustrated by the transformation of free word-groups composed of the verb have, a noun (pronoun) and Participle II of some other verb (e.g. hē hжfde hine
) into the grammatical form- the Present Perfect in Modern English. The degree of semantic and grammatical inseparability in this analytical word-form is so high that the component has
seems to possess no lexical meaning of its own.
The term lexicalization implies that the word-group under discussion develops into a word-equivalent, i.e. a phraseological unit or a compound word. These two parallel lines of lexicalization of free word-groups can be illustrated by the diachronic analysis of, e.g., the compound word instead
and the phraseological unit in spite (of).
Both of them can be traced back to structurally1
identical free phrases.1
(cf. OE. In spede
and ME. In despit.)
There are some grounds to suppose that there exists a kind of interdependence between these two ways of lexicalization of free word-groups which makes them mutually exclusive. It is observed, for example, that compounds are more abundant in certain parts of speech, whereas phraseological units are numerically predominant in others. Thus, e.g., phraseological units are found in great numbers as verb-equivalents whereas compound verbs are comparatively few. This leads us to assume that lexicalization of free word-groups and their transformation into words or phraseological units is governed by the fewer phraseological units we are likely to encounter in this class of words.
Very little is known of the factors active in the process of lexicalization of free word-groups which results in the appearance of phraseological units. This problem may be viewed in terms of the degree of motivation. We may safely assume that a free word-group is transformed into a phraseological unit when it acquires semantic inseparability and becomes synchronically non-motivated.
The following may be perceived as the main causes accounting for the less' of motivation of free word-groups:
When one of the components of a word-group becomes archaic or drops out of the language altogether the whole word-group may become completely or partially non-motivated. For example, lack of motivation in the word-group kith and kin may be accounted for by the fact that the member-word kith dropped out of the language altogether except as the component of the phraseological unit under discussion. This is also observed in the phraseological unit under discussion.
When as a result of a change in the semantic structure of a polysemantic word some of its meanings disappear and can be found only in certain collocations. The noun mind, e.g., once meant 'purpose' or 'intention' and this meaning survives in the phrases to have a mind to do smth., to change one's mind, etc.
When a free word-group used in professional speech penetrates into general literary usage, it is often felt as non-motivated.