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Theory and practice of translation

  1. The Concept of Translation. The Theories on  Methods and Techniques of Translation. The Method of Introspection based on the Semantical Theory of linguistical signs, and the Method of Interpretation and the Descriptive Method based on the theory of pragmatics of the translated text.

  2. Language Functions: six functions of language according to Jakobson, namely, Referential, Expressive (Emotive), Conative,  Poetic, Phatic, Metalingual ones.  Text-Categories: the texts with pictures, charts, graphs, diagrams and the ones without visuals, and Text-Types: descriptive, narrative, expository, and argumentative ones.

  3. Register Analysis. Registers as varieties of language viewed from the point of view of formality. Shifts of Register. Restricted Registers: the role of the translator as communicator in a very restricted register with particular linguistic, pragmatic, and ideological conventions.

  4. Translation and Interpretation as two branches of translation: written and oral ones.

  5. The Process of Translation. Main stages of written translation – pre-translation analysis and the use of principle techniques: choice of lexis adequate to style, genre and register, various lexical and grammatical transformations, substitution, omission, and antonymous translation.  Basics of the process of oral translation, namely, consecutive and simultaneous translation and conference interpreting.

  6. Types of Translation: written translation: literary(prose, poetry or plays),informative translation, machine translation, web-based translation, web-based human translation and oral translation, namely, consecutive and simultaneous translation and conference interpreting. Characteristic features of oral translation.

  7. Techniques of Translation: Direct Translation techniques (Borrowing, Calque,Literal Translation) and Oblique Translation Techniques (Transposition, Modulation, Reformulation or Equivalence, Adaptation and Compensation).

  8. Equivalence in Translation. Types of Equivalents (Four types according to V.N.Komissarov, namely, only one part of the contents is preserved; the different versions are distinguished by the portion of contents preserved; what is preserved is juxtaposed to what is lost; and finally, the part to be preserved is rationally chosen in function of the translator's considerations.)..

  9. Cohesion and Coherence in Interpretation and Translation. The Role of Coherence as a covert potential meaning relationship among parts of a text, and the translator’s process of interpretation of the text in order to appropriate the meaning for the intended reader. The Coherence shift of eexpression made by the translator.

  10. Translation Methods. Method of Introspection based on the Semantical Theory of linguistical signs, and the Method of Interpretation and the Descriptive Method based on the theory of pragmatics of the translated text.

  11. Difficulties  in Translating: the absence of conceptual equivalence or comparability of meaning, the lack of’ cultural’ information, the absence of grammatical and syntactical structures, and the absence of lexical and stylistical equivalents, the presence of neologisms, colloquialisms and others.

  12. Translation and Culture. Translation as an essential tool in ensuring that languages, values, beliefs, histories and narratives can be mutually shared and comprehended.

  13. Pragmatics and Translation. The possibility of the translator to capture and translate appropriately the non-linguistic dimensions of verbal communication thanks to his knowledge of pragmatics.

  14. History of Translation Theory. Latin as the lingua franca of the western learned world in the Middle Ages. The translations of Bede’s Ecclesiastical History and Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy. The first great English translation of the Wycliffe Bible. Modern translation: tendencies in the translation of literary and poetical works.

  15. The Linguistic Bias: ,,Translating is Transcoding”. Definition of transcoding. Sociolinguistics and Translation. The connection of translation not only with words and texts, but with the translator’s personal way of understanding words and texts.

  16. The Interdisciplinary Character of Translation Studies. The involvement of rather diverse disciplines, ranging from Linguistics to Anthropology, from textual and literary studies to those of complex linguistic aptitudes and language acquisition in Translation Studies.

  17. Simultaneous and Consecutive Interpretation. Techniques of both types of interpretation. The stages of the translator’s preparation for interpretation. The sources of information before the process of interpretation.

  18. Five Principles and Five Skills for Training Interpreters.

  19. Memory in Interpreting. The necessity of including some psycholinguistic elements in the training of future interpreters.

  20. AIIC – (goals activities) and Conference Interpreters. Professional Standards. Stages and sources of information in the process of preparation for intepreting.

  21. Interpreter Honors Code. Ten Plus one Rules of a Good Interpretation

1.The Concept of Translation. The Theories on  Methods and Techniques of Translation. The Method of Introspection based on the Semantical Theory of linguistical signs, and the Method of Interpretation and the Descriptive Method based on the theory of pragmatics of the translated text.

The term translation,itself have several meanings:it can refer to the general subject field, the product(the text that had been translated)or the process(the act of the producting the translation, otherwise known as translating).The process of translation between 2 different written languages involves the translator changing an original text(the Source Text) in the original verbal language(the source language)into the written text (the target text)in different verbal language(the target language).This type corresponds to ‘interlingual translation’,and is one of the 3 categories of translation.The Jacobson’s categories are the following:

a.intralingual translation-an interpretation of verbal signs by means of other signs of the same language.

b.interlingual translation-an interpretation of verbal signs by means of some other language.

c.intersemiotic translation-an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of non-verbal sign system.

Intralingulan translation would occur,for example when we rephrase an expression or text in the same language to explain or clarify something we might have said or written.Intersemiotic translation would occur if a written text were translated, for example into music, film or painting.It is interlingual translation which is the traditional,although by no means exclusive,focus on translation studies.

The Theories on  Methods and Techniques of Translation

Translation method refers to the way a particular translation process is carried out in terms of the translator’s objective, i.e., a global option that affects the whole text.There are several translation methods that may be chosen, depending on the aim of the translation: interpretative-communicative (translation of the sense), literal (linguistic transcodification), free (modification of semiotic and communicative categories) and philological (academic or critical translation).Each solution the translator chooses when translating a text responds to the global option that affects the whole text (the translation method) and depends on the aim of the translation. The translation method affects the way micro-units of the text are translated: the translation techniques. Thus, we should distinguish between the

method chosen by the translator, e.g., literal or adaptation, that affects the whole text,and the translation techniques, e.g., literal translation or adaptation, that affect microunits of the text.Logically, method and functions should function harmoniously in the text. For example, if the aim of a translation method is to produce a foreignising version, then borrowing will be one of the most frequently used translation techniques. Each translation had adopted a different translation method, and the techniques were studied in relation to the method chosen.

The Method of Introspection based on the Semantical Theory of linguistical signs, and the Method of Interpretation and the Descriptive Method based on the theory of pragmatics of the translated text

2.Language Functions: six functions of language according to Jakobson, namely, Referential, Expressive (Emotive), Conative,  Poetic, Phatic, Metalingual ones.  Text-Categories: the texts with pictures, charts, graphs, diagrams and the ones without visuals, and Text-Types: descriptive, narrative, expository, and argumentative ones.

Sophie Jakobson defined six functions of language (or communication functions), according to which an effective act of verbal communication can be described.Each of the functions has an associated factor. For this work, Jakobson was influenced by Karl Bьhler's Organon-Model, to which he added the poetic, phatic and metalingual functions.
The six functions of language

The Referential Function 

corresponds to the factor of Context and describes a situation, object or mental state. The descriptive statements of the referential function can consist of both definite descriptions and deictic words, e.g. "The autumn leaves have all fallen now."

The Expressive (alternatively called "emotive" or "affective") Function 

relates to the Addresser (sender) and is best exemplified by interjections and other sound changes that do not alter the denotative meaning of an utterance but do add information about the Addresser's (speaker's) internal state, e.g. "Wow, what a view!"

The Conative Function 

engages the Addressee (receiver) directly and is best illustrated by vocatives and imperatives, e.g. "Tom! Come inside and eat!"

The Poetic Function 

focuses on "the message for its own sake"(the code itself, and how it is used) and is the operative function in poetry as well as slogans.

The Phatic Function 

is language for the sake of interaction and is therefore associated with the Contact factor. The Phatic Function can be observed in greetings and casual discussions of the weather, particularly with strangers. It also provides the keys to open, maintain, verify or close the communication channel: "Hello?", "Ok?", "Hummm", "Bye"...

The Metalingual (alternatively called "metalinguistic" or "reflexive") Function 

is the use of language (what Jakobson calls "Code") to discuss or describe itself. (All this article is an example of metalinguistic Function).

Text categories

Literary text categories
1) category of segmentation manifests itself through the literary text division into parts, chapters, paragraphs that are characterized by formal and compositional autonomy
2) category of connectedness is realized through cohesion (formal connectedness and coherence (content connectedness)).
3) category of prospection is associated with the plot development, which can be prospective or cataphoric (looking towards the future; realized by means of flash-forwards) and retrospective or anaphoric (looking towards the past) realized by means of flashbacks.
4) category of retrospection
5) category of anthropocentricity is reflected through the subordination of the text to the task of person characterization
6) category of local-temporal reference of the text is expressed through the system of tenses and lexical time markers as well as place description
7) category of conceptuality accounts for the embodiment of social, moral, aesthetic ideas of a literary work, which constitute its concept
8) category of informativity is responsible for information stratification into: factual, conceptual and implicit (or subtext)
9) category of systemic character is attributed to the literary text because its macro and microelements and functions integrate in a closed system that serves a specific purpose. Pecularities: no element exists independently; limited in time and space; its constituents cannot be developed, substituted, removed
10) category of integrity and completeness differentiated a text from a non-text
11) category of modality is the result of the author’s subjective interpretation of reality
12) category of pragmatic orientation consists in stimulating the reader’s feedback – intellectual and emotional reactions
Categories of time, space, person – literary text universals

3.Register Analysis. Registers as varieties of language viewed from the point of view of formality. Shifts of Register. Restricted Registers: the role of the translator as communicator in a very restricted register with particular linguistic, pragmatic, and ideological conventions.

Special purposes language courses are not restricted to the English language: there has been general acceptance of the acronym LSP or Languages for Special Purposes. However, much of the research on LSP is written in English and English for Special Purposes (ESP) has received greater attention than the more general term from curriculum experts and materials designers. One of the most complete bibliographies of ESP, that of Robinson (1980), lists over 500 entries of theoretical and applied work done within only the last ten years. In effect, ESP has become an umbrella term covering a wide range of interests and approaches to student centered learning. Munby indicates his acceptance of this term as he defines ESP courses in which "the syllabi and materials are determined in all essentials by the prior analysis of the communicative needs of the learner, rather than by non-learner centered criteria such as the teacher's or institution's predetermined preference for General English or for teaching English as part of a general education" (1978:2). Specific content areas have their own acronyms: EST refers to the English of Science and Techno- EBE refers to English for Business and Economics EOP refers to English for Occupational Purposes; VESL refers to Vocational ESL; and EAP refers to English for Academic Purposes. These acronyms reveal the content areas to be included in the curriculum; it remains the language instructor's job to specify the content in the syllabus. In other words, these questions must be addressed: What is distinctive about the language of science? How is the language of science similar to or different from the language of technology? How are areas such as science, technology or business different from general English? These questions are more often asked than answered. One early and influential attempt to answer these questions was based on the argument that different uses of a Language will necessarily be accompanied by different surface structure features--stated simply this means that the language of science will look and sound different from other varieties of English. Such a view makes intuitive sense. The proponents of this "function helps determine form" point of view were Halliday, McIntosh, and Strevens in their book The Linguistic Sciences and Lang- Teaching (1964). They can be credited with introducing a term, which has become part of the jargon of applied linguistics--that of "register" or "a variety of language distinguished according to use" (1964:89). Halliday, McIntosh, and Strevens then defined louse" in terms of three parameters: field, mode, and style or tenor. Field was used to refer globally to language activities such as Politics, linguistics, or music; tenor was used to refer to the interpersonal role relationships between people (e.g., teacher/student, parents/children, boss/ employees); mode was used to refer to the medium of communication selected (e.g., speech, writing). Thus, register in the Halliday, et al., framework encompassed a number Of socio-cultural features of communication. Problems arose, however, when the framework began to be applied to specific contexts. Correlations were found between linguistic features such as grammatical structures or lexical choices and specific registers. These correlations led people to believe it was possible to predict what a register would look or sound like from the occurrences of grammar and lexicon. The Misleading assumption was that because a text exhibited certain surface structure linguistic features, then it must belong to a specific register.

Later Halliday and Hasan in Cohesion in English (1976) would define cohesion or intersentential connectivity also in terms of grammar and lexis. Although Halliday, et al., never intended for grammar and lexis to be the sole determiners of register, many interpreted register in this narrow fashion because there did exist some very specialized registers of English that could be learned with dictionary and grammar in hand. For example, the topics and questions addressed to hotel employees are generally restricted to a narrow semantic field. Similarly, the language use of airline pilots and air traffic controllers is restricted to clearly identifiable lexical items and grammatical structures. Early studies in ESP, thus, concentrated on registers that were fairly homogeneous and that did not show a great deal of variety among Users. When the same methods were applied to more complex registers, it became clear that grammar and lexicon alone were insufficient predictors what people would actually say and write. These early studies were important because they showed the inadequacy of a register approach alone and the need to include more variables in the descriptive process. The methodology for register analysis (very often computational linguistics) was necessarily bound to the words on a page and proceeded in linear, word-by-word, or sentence-by-sentence parsing. The methodology became similar to that of "explication de texte"--a structuralist methodology for making the formal features of a literary work explicit. Explication de texte attempts intensive analysis of written text assuming that the sum Of the parts is greater than the whole; register analysis too often loses sight of the global meaning of a text by an overemphasis on the parts.

One goal of register analysis dovetailed with that of contrastive analysis--where there were differences, one could predict difficulty. Language teachers could concentrate on lexical differences such as the higher frequency of noun compounds in scientific English as well as grammatical distinctions such as the higher incidence of passive voice constructions in scientific English with the intention that difficulties with the language would be removed once students had enough practice in manipulating the forms distinctive to a register. Such a solution to the register problem was necessary because few ESP teachers have the same domain specific knowledge that their students have, and thus without this top-down conceptual orientation to the subject matter, these teachers were attempting to teach what they knew best grammar and vocabulary. While register studies based on statistical descriptions helped create materials that were more authentic representations of what students would actually encounter in the real world, they still were not helping students make the semantic and pragmatic connection that comprehension entails. Thus, register analysis was a valuable tool for identifying classroom materials with high content validity; the mistake was to try to teach these materials by the same principles that they were selected. Selinker, Todd-Trimble, and Trimble underscored the problems students encounter when teaching overemphasizes discrete point features of language. They remarked that students "often seem unable to comprehend the total meaning of the EST discourse even when they understand all the words in each sentence and all the sentences that make up the discourse" .

Register analysis is a necessary first step in an analysis of the linguistic needs of students in ESP Courses. Register analysis can guide teachers in the selection and preparation of materials that should by their content validity motivate students to learn. Register analysis thus helps ensure appropriateness of content.However, the assumption underlying Language Teaching for Special Purposes is that a focus on the actual use made of language will lead to an improvement in student attitude, motivation, and ultimately performance. ESP, thus, falls well within the framework of communicative language teaching which is currently becoming an international phenomenon. To prevent the focus of ESP from becoming either too narrow or too wide, teachers need to continue evaluating program goals in light of student performance both inside and outside the classroom. Therefore, the content of an ESP syllabus should be based on an approach that combines register analysis with discourse analysis. Register analysis can be used to determine authenticity of language in relation to lexical and grammatical features. Discourse analysis can be used to help deter mine the authenticity Of the message as an act of communication involving a sender, receiver, and situational context in which a message is embedded. Thus, these procedures help better isolate what should be taught in the Classroom. Language teachers, however, must continue to struggle with the problem of how to make the language used in the classroom more like the language used outside- the classroom.

4.Translation and Interpretation as two branches of translation: written and oral ones.

Over the past few years, the terms "Language Translation" and "Language Interpretation" have emerged as two of the busiest buzzwords in the Language Service Industry. Although they appear to be and are often mistaken to be synonyms, there are significant differences between translation and interpretation. The primary similarity between the two is that they are both modes of language conversion.Language Interpretation is essentially about spoken language.Language Translation primarily deals with written text.
Many people believe both tasks involve substituting words from one language to words from another.  However, both Language Interpretation and Language Translation demand a meticulous knowledge of more than just the language itself. Importantly, both translation and interpretation have various cultural references and cultural nuances.Along with converting one spoken language into another, Interpretation basically encompasses converting a spoken source language into spoken target language, and vice versa. Language Interpreters are required to be very attentive and excessively careful before they perform any interpretation task. They need to thoroughly understand what needs to be communicated and the context in which it's being communicated in both the languages.As Language Translators convert written material from a source language into another target language, excellent writing skills and analytical abilities are fundamental for successful translation. In addition, expert editing skills are critical for effective translation. Language Translation also involves replacement of words with more appropriate words in the other language. Those who offer translation services also manage the flow of ideas in the cultural context to ensure that the resulting document is the closest possible translation to the target language.If one is considering making a profession in either of these fields, then it should be understood that both Interpretation and Translation language services demand a love of both languages. However, there is a difference in the set of aptitudes and the training needed for each job. Expertise in Language Interpretation demands extensive research, strong analytical skills, mental dexterity, and a fantastic memory. On the other hand, the key skill set needed to deliver Language Translation service is the ability to write well and express oneself clearly in the target language and the source language. This is why many professional translators prefer translating only into their native language. A rich library of dictionaries and reference materials are necessary for effective Interpretation and Translation.Both Language Interpretation and Language Translation have become promising career options, especially as globalization continues. Internationally, there are a growing number of institutes which teach Professional Language Translation and Professional Language Interpretation

5.The Process of Translation. Main stages of written translation – pre-translation analysis and the use of principle techniques: choice of lexis adequate to style, genre and register, various lexical and grammatical transformations, substitution, omission, and antonymous translation.  Basics of the process of oral translation, namely, consecutive and simultaneous translation and conference interpreting.

Process of translation

In modern translation studies we distinguish the following major types of translation:

  1. Interpreting can be defined as the translation of speech orally, as opposed to translation of written texts. It requires special skills (note taking, summarizing, language skills), a good memory, sheer mental stamina and, often, arduous training.
    There are several types of interpreting:
    Simultaneous interpreting: The interpreter starts to translate before the speaker has finished his/her utterance. Most often used at large events such as conferences and carried out by panels of at least two interpreters using special equipment. As this type of work is particularly tiring and stressful, the rule of thumb is that an interpreter should be able to take a break after 45 minutes of continuous work.
    Liaison interpreting: A generic name for business interpreting; also just interpreting for trade conventions and other general business situations. Usually refers to the activities of a single interpreter who accompanies an individual or delegation around.
    Consecutive interpreting: The interpreter starts to translate only after the speaker has finished his/her utterance. Often used at smaller conferences etc., generally used in courtroom settings, speeches. Just one interpreter is often enough.
    Telephone Interpreting: Interpreting carried out over the phone, using a three-way calling phone patch; also with video-conferencing.
    2. Word-For-Word Translation: Transferring the meaning of each individual word in a text to another, equivalent word in the target language. Sometimes called 'Literal Translation'. While this is clearly appropriate for dictionaries, it can produce very for complex passages of text.
    3. Literary translation: Translation of literary works (novels, short stories, plays, poems, etc.) is considered a literary pursuit in its own right.
    4. Free Translation: Translating loosely from the original. Contrasted with word for word or literal translation, this may be the best method depending on the most appropriate unit of translation involved.
    5. Descriptive translation: One must bear in mind that it is the notional meaning of the source language unit and not always its morphological nature or structural form that is to be rendered in the target language. As a result, the target language unit, which equivalently/faithfully conveys the denotative/connotative meaning of the corresponding source language unit may not necessarily belong to the same language stratification level. Depending on the notion expressed by the source language word/lexeme, it may be conveyed in the target language sometimes through a word-combination or even through a sentence, i.e., descriptively. Descriptive translating/interpreting is very often employed to render the sense/meaning of idioms/ phraseologisms, which have no equivalents in the target language. Descriptive translation is also employed in foot-notes to explain obscure places in narration.
    6. Antonymic translation is employed for the sake of achieving faithfulness in conveying content or the necessary expressiveness of sense units. It represents a way of rendering when an affirmative in structure language unit (word, word-combination or sentence) is conveyed via a negative in sense or structure but identical in content language unit, or vice versa: a negative in sense or structure sense unit is translated via an affirmative sense unit.
    The antonymic device is employed in the following cases: a) when in the target language there is no direct equivalent for the sense unit of the source language; b) when the sense unit of the source language has two negations of its own which create an affirmation; c) in order to achieve the necessary expressiveness in narration; d) in order to avoid the use of the same or identical structures close to each other in a text (stylistic aim and means).
    7. Back-translation: If one text is a translation of another, a back-translation is a translation of the translated text back into the language of the original text, made without reference to the original text. In the context of machine translation, this is also called a "round-trip translation." Comparison of a back-translation to the original text is sometimes used as a quality check on the original translation, but it is certainly far from infallible and the reliability of this technique has been disputed.
    8. Machine Translation: Machine translation (MT) is automatic translation, in which a computer takes over all the work of translating. Obviously, a computer will work much faster (and is cheaper) than a human being. It can be a useful method if the purpose of the translation is a limited one; for example, to gain a rough idea of what a text contains ('gisting') and/or to process large numbers of documents very rapidly.
    MT works best on highly repetitive texts, involving a restricted range of vocabulary. Typically, these are highly intricate scientific or technical texts. It does less well on more general or varied texts, and those involving a high degree of abstraction, and with these often yields useless results. The problem here is that it fails to cope with speech acts.
    Even on repetitive texts, the finished output often needs to be checked to by a human translator, and varying degrees of post-editing might be necessary.
    Another factor is the source language - target language pair. MT works best also where languages are of a similar type (isolating: English - Spanish) or related (German - English) or closely related (Norwegian - Danish). At the time of writing, the obvious advantage of using MT to translate from one dialect to another in the same language (e.g. US English - British English) seems to have been overlooked but, using the same logic, it should work well on this.
    9. CAT: Computer-assisted translation (CAT), also called "computer-aided translation," "machine-aided human translation (МАНТ)" and "interactive translation," is a form of translation wherein a human translator creates a target text with the assistance of a computer program. The machine supports a human translator.Computer-assisted translation can include standard dictionary and grammar software. The term, however, normally refers to a range of specialized programs available to the translator, including translation-memory, terminology-management, concordance, and alignment programs With the internet, translation software can help non-native-speaking individuals understand web pages published in other languages. Whole-page translation tools are of limited utility, however, since they offer only a limited potential understanding of the original author's intent and context; translated pages tend to be more humorous and confusing than enlightening.
    Interactive translations with pop-up windows are becoming more popular. These tools show several possible translations of each word or phrase. Human operators merely need to select the correct translation as the mouse glides over the foreign-language text. Possible definitions can be grouped by pronunciation.
    10. Pseudo-translation is a technique needed for pseudolocalization that is used in software localization. In contrast to the usual translation process it is the process of creating text that mimics a foreign language without the goal of expressing the source text meaning in the target language.
    One approach to pseudo-translation involves the addition of special characters typical for the locale of the target language (for example a diacritical mark like a German Umlaut 'a'), as well as changing the number of characters belonging to the text. In that approach, the text is pseudo-translated in a way that allows to recognize the original source text. Another pseudo-translation solution involves the use of machine translation technology, which not only generates the necessary special characters but also gives developers a good indication of the length of a string in a particular target language.
    Pseudo-translation precedes the actual translation in the software development process. Its purpose is to test that the software is prepared for translation.
    Elena Shapa suggests the following classification model:
    1) According to the unit of translation, translation can be:
    • sound translation;
    • word translation;
    • word-combination, idioms or phraseological units translation;
    • sentence translation;
    • paragraph translation;
    • text translation;
    • intertextual translation.
    2) According to the aim of translation, translation can be:
    • literal translation;
    • summative translation, when the main ideas are rendered in the translated version;
    • abstract/adnotare, not more than a paragraph (sometimes not more than 6-7 sentences).
    3) According to tasks and objectives of translation, translation can be:
    • literary translation;
    • informative translation;
    • semantic translation.
    4) According to number of translators, translation can be:
    • individual translation;
    • committee translation.
    She also specifies the following translation types: • Formal equivalence translation (FЕ): This refers to a translation approach which attempts to retain the language forms of the original as much as possible in the translation, regardless of whether or not they are the most natural way to express the original meaning. In this type of translation, the translator chooses one of a limited number of meanings assigned to each word. The translator fills in the words that belong in the sentence but follows the word arrangement and grammar that is characteristic of the original language. Such a translation is often viewed as accurate. However, it can result in awkward, misleading, incomprehensible, or even amusing sentences.
    Interlinear translation presents each line of the source text with a line directly beneath it giving a word by word literal translation in a target language. An interlinear translation is useful for technical study of the forms of the source text.
    • Literal translation is where the forms of the original are retained as much as possible, even if those forms are not the most natural forms to preserve the original meaning. Literal translation is sometimes called word-for-word translation (as opposed to thought-for-thought translation).
    Word-for-word translation: A form of literal translation which seeks to match the individual words of the original as closely as possible to individual words of the target language. The translator seeks to translate an original word by the same target word as much as possible (this is technically called concordance). In addition, the order of words of the original language will be followed as closely as possible. No English translation, except for some interlinear translations, is a true word-for-word translation, but those who prefer this form of translation typically promote formally literal versions.
    Loan translation means borrowing the meaning parts of a source word and directly translating them to the target language, instead of using a native term from the target language. The meaning parts of the source word are directly translated to equivalent meaning parts of the target language. Sometimes the borrowing is partial, with part of a term borrowed and part of it native in form. A word which is created through loan translation is also called calque.
    Idiomatic translation is where the meaning of the original is translated into forms which most accurately and naturally preserve the meaning of the original forms. Idiomatic refers to being in the common language of average speakers, using the natural phrasings and idioms of the language.
    •Dynamic translation: If a translation is dynamic we mean that the original meaning is communicated naturally in it, as well as accurately. A dynamic translation pays careful attention to the natural features of the target language. A dynamic translation attempts to speak in the language of the average fluent speaker of the language.
    Common language translation (CLT) is a version of the source text which is in the plain, ordinary language of the average speaker. It follows an idiomatic translation approach. The vocabulary and grammatical constructions are chosen carefully to ensure that they are in common usage by ordinary speakers of the language.
    Vernacular translation: Translation into the everyday language of people, as distinguished from a literary dialect of their language or some other dialect or language of education or social prestige.
    Meaning-based translation (MB) properly focuses on the critical need for translation to preserve meaning. Adequate translation cannot always preserve forms of the original, but it must always preserve the meaning of the original.
    Thought-for-thought translation: In such a translation the meaning of the original text is expressed in equivalent thoughts, that is, meanings. Thought-for-thought translation is typically contrasted with word-for-word translation.
    Interpretive translation: A translation which includes interpretation of the meaning of the source text, rather than simply the translation of that text. One logically legitimate use of this term would be for instances where a translator inserts information which, is extraneous to the particular passage being translated. Such information, if relevant to study of the implications of that passage, belongs elsewhere, such as in a commentary, rather than in the translation itself.
    Front translation is designed to assist a native translator. It is prepared by an advisor for a specific translation project for the mother tongue translators under his supervision. The advisor creates a front translation with the goal of making the meaning explicit and as easy as possible for the mother tongue translator, whose ability in English (or another national language) is limited, to use. The front translation contains all the meaning of the original, including implicit information which may need to be made explicit in the translation.

7.Techniques of Translation: Direct Translation techniques (Borrowing, Calque,Literal Translation) and Oblique Translation Techniques (Transposition, Modulation, Reformulation or Equivalence, Adaptation and Compensation).
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