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Lexicology Test – 6


  1. English lexicography




  1. Universal English-Russian Dictionary of Modern Lexicon”, A. Bazhenkova, 2006

This dictionary is a linguistic general explanatory bilingual synchronic dictionary that consists of 1262 pages and includes about 100 000 entries. The dictionary is divided in following parts:

    1. Content;

    2. Alphabet;

    3. Preface and the structure of entries;

    4. Conventional abbreviations;

    5. The main part – entries;

    6. List of irregular verbs;

    7. List of English-speaking countries;

    8. List of geographical names;

    9. Numerals;

    10. Bibliography.

All entries are situated according to the alphabetic order. Each word along with its meanings makes an independent entry. The entry is opened by a headword in bold. It is followed by phonetic transcription, the part of speech notation, “subject field” label, style, usage, temporal and regional labels and translation of the meaning/meanings into Russian. The main meanings follow the Arabic numerals without brackets and submeanings – the Arabic numerals with a round bracket:

dead II [ded] a 1. 1) мертвый… ; 2) связанный со смертью

Idioms, proverbs are given at the end of the entry marked out with rhombus  and are illustrated with examples. Phrasal verbs are given after all main meanings of the verb:

run [r?n] v (ran; run) I 1. бежать, бегать…

run across phr v 1. (smb/smth) случайно встретить кого-либо/что-либо.

The entry contains grammatical characteristics too: plural of nouns, forms of irregular verbs, indication of transitivity/intransitivity etc.

Examples are given only after the words that can cause difficulties in using.

Information about etymology, synonyms and antonyms is absent.



  1. Complete English-Russian Dictionary”, V.K. Mьller, 2007.

This dictionary is a linguistic general explanatory bilingual synchronic dictionary that consists of 1536 pages and includes 250 000 words and word combinations. The dictionary includes following parts:

    1. Preface;

    2. Bibliography;

    3. The structure of entries;

    4. Phonetic-orthographical notations;

    5. Abbreviations.

    6. Alphabet;

    7. The main part – entries;

    8. List of irregular verbs;

    9. List of personal names;

    10. List of geographical names;

    11. Abbreviations in common use

    12. Metric measuring system.

The entries are situated according to the alphabetical order. The entry consists of the headword, phonetic transcription, grammatical characteristics, style labels, translation into Russian of all meanings of the word, illustrative examples and phraseology. The headword is written in bold. Lexical homonyms are marked with Roman numerals. Phonetic transcription is given in brackets. The parts of speech in the same entry are marked out with Arabic numerals. Different meanings of the word are separated with Arabic numerals with a round bracket. Meaning shades are marked with a letter with a round bracket. Sometimes a meaning is illustrated with an example. Grammatical labels – part of speech, plural forms, irregular verbs, transitivity/intransitivity – are given, too. Phrasal verbs are separated from the main verb with a sign (parallelepiped). American variant is given in an independent entry with a reference to a British one:

colorant n амер. = colourant


  1. English-Russian Comprehensive Law Dictionary”, A. Mamulyan, S. Kashkin, 2006.

This dictionary is a linguistic restricted juridical explanatory bilingual dictionary of the synchronic type. It consists of 800 pages and includes about 100 000 entries. The dictionary can be divided in following parts:

    1. Preface to the academic edition;

    2. English alphabet;

    3. List of abbreviations;

    4. Entries.

The entries are situated according to the alphabetical order. Every entry consists of the headword written in bold and translation into Russian. Different meanings of the same word are marked out with Arabic numerals. After translation of the main word different word combinations are given. The headword in these combinations is replaced with the sign *.

The entries don’t contain grammatical characteristics, style, usage, regional or temporal labels.

The dictionary gives translation only to the law vocabulary.


  1. Oxford Primary Dictionary”, R. Allen, 2006.

This dictionary is a linguistic general explanatory monolingual dictionary of the synchronic type. It consists of 568 pages and includes about 30 000 entries.

The entries are situated according to the alphabetic order. Each entry begins with the headword in bold. Then the part of speech is given. As concerns grammatical characteristics the following are indicated – forms of irregular verbs, plural of nouns, degrees of comparison. These notations are followed by word explanation. The word is explained in context – in whole sentences. The word combinations and derivatives are also explained at the end of the entry. Phrasal verbs are written in bold and are explained after the main word.

In addition to the indicated labels there are grammatical, lexical and etymological comments given to some words in separate blocks.

In conclusion the structure of the entry and a list with suffixes and their meanings are given.


  1. «Словарь наиболее употребительных синонимов английского языка», П.П. Литвинов, 2001.

This dictionary is a linguistic restricted synonymic specialized bilingual dictionary of the synchronic type. It consists of 460 pages and about 30 000 entries. The dictionary is divided in following parts: preface, alphabet, structure of the entries.

The entries are situated according to the alphabetical order. Each entry consists of three columns. In the first column is the headword in bold. It is followed by its synonyms that are given below in the same column. The second column contains transcription of the headword and each synonym. The third column gives translation.

Grammatical characteristics of the words, style, regional, temporal or usage labels, etymology are absent.


  1. Etymology of the English lexicon




    1. The main strata of borrowed words in English are Latin-Greek borrowings:

Pound, mint, mustard, school, dish, chin, cleric, cheese, devil, pepper, street, gospel, bishop, candle, cup, plant, wall, interior.


    1. Etymology of the words:




Words

Language

Degree of assimilation

uncle

Norman French

completely assimilated

state

Norman French

completely assimilated

comrade

French

partially assimilated

street

Latin

completely assimilated

waltz

German

partially assimilated

criterion

Greek

partially assimilated

sky

Old Norse

partially assimilated

knight

Old English

completely assimilated

ballet

French

partially assimilated

curriculum

Latin

partially assimilated

table

Norman French

completely assimilated

tomato

Spanish

completely assimilated

bouquet

French

partially assimilated

coup d’йtat

French

unassimilated

persona grata

Late Latin

unassimilated

skirt

Old Norse

completely assimilated

primadonna

Italian

partially assimilated




    1. The words originating from the same etymological source, but differing in phonemic shape and in meaning are called etymological doublets.

canal (Latin) – channel (French)

shadow – shade (both came from Old English; two forms of the same word were interpreted as two separate words)

chase (Parisian French) – catch (Norman French)

goal (Norman French) – jail (Parisian French)

shirt (Germanic) – skirt (Old Norse)

major (Latin) – mayor (Old French)

balm (Old French) – balsam (Latin)

frail (Old French) – fragile (Latin)

shell (Old English) – scale (Old French)


  1. Word meaning




    1. Semantic structure

face:

  1. а) лицо, физиономия, лик; б) морда животного;

  2. макияж, косметика; (metonymic)

  3. выражение лица; гримаса; (metonymic)

  4. нахальство, наглость дерзость, самоуверенность; (metonymic)

  5. внешний вид; (metonymic)

  6. а) притворство, маскировка; б) репутация, лицо, престиж, достоинство; (metonymic)

  7. поверхность (земли и т.п.); (metaphoric)

  8. фасад; (metaphoric)

  9. лицевая сторона, передняя сторона; (metaphoric)

  10. грань (кристалла, алмаза); (metaphoric)

  11. действующая рабочая поверхность, напр., лезвие инструмента; (metaphoric)

  12. фас (воен.); (metaphoric)

  13. облицовка. (metaphoric)


hand:

  1. а) рука (кисть); б) лапа, клешня, конечность; в) рука (образн. – рука смерти); (metaphoric)

  2. власть, контроль, надзор; защита, охрана; (metonymic)

  3. а) средство, посредничество, помощь; б) доля, участие; (metonymic)

  4. а) сторона, направление; б) точка зрения; (metonymic)

  5. обещание, клятва; (metonymic)

  6. а) рабочий, работник; б) писатель, музыкант, актер; (metonymic)

  7. матрос; (metonymic)

  8. источник; (metonymic)

  9. ловкость, сноровка, мастерство, умение, способность; (metonymic)

  10. партия, кон (в некоторых играх ); (metonymic)

  11. аплодисменты; (metonymic)

  12. почерк; стиль письма; подпись; (metonymic)

  13. а) стрелка часов; б) указатель; (metaphoric)

  14. мера длины, равная четырем дюймам , ладонь; (metonymic)

  15. карты на руках у игрока, игрок. (metonymic)


head:

  1. а) голова; б) головная боль; (metonymic)

  2. ум, интеллект, умственные способности; (metonymic)

  3. а) изображение головы; б) лицевая сторона монеты (с изображением головы), орел; в) почтовая марка; (metonymic)

  4. волосы (на голове); (metonymic)

  5. рога оленя, косули-самца и др.; (metonymic)

  6. а) человек; б) голова скота; (metonymic)

  7. (верхняя главная часть предмета) а) наконечник, черенок, обух; б) шляпка (гвоздя), головка (булавки); в) тело кометы; (metaphoric)

  8. кочан (капусты), колос (зерновых), крона (дерева); (metaphoric)

  9. пена (на пиве), сливки ( на молоке); (metaphoric)

  10. верхушка, верхняя часть; (metaphoric)

  11. начало страницы; заголовок, отдел, рубрика, газетный заголовок (metaphoric)

  12. назревшая головка нарыва, фурункула; (metaphoric)

  13. а) исток, верховье реки; б) источник, начало, первоисточник; (metaphoric)

  14. головная часть; (metaphoric)

  15. передняя, носовая часть судна; (metaphoric)

  16. мыс; (metaphoric)

  17. глава, руководитель, начальник; директор школы; (metaphoric)

  18. результат, исход; высшая точка, кульминация; перелом, кризис. (metaphoric)




    1. Type of semantic change:

gay

deterioration

merry, cheerful, light-hearted g homosexual

fowl

restriction

bird of any kind g domestic hen or rooster

ready

extension

ordered, arranged g prepared, set

cowboy

deterioration

an adventurous hero  an incompetent, irresponsible workman

hound

restriction

dog of any breed  a dog used in the chase

meat

restriction

food, item of food (contrasted with drink)g a kind of food

silly

deterioration

blessed g foolish, stupid

revolution

restriction

turning over, rolling back g instance of great change in affairs g overthrow of one government and its replacement with another

queen

amelioration

woman, wife g female ruler of a state

starve

restriction

to die g to die of hunger

minister

amelioration

a servant g a head of a government department

steward

extension

house guardian g one who is in charge of the household affairs of a large estate, club, hotel or resort



  1. Word formation




    1. Types of word formation:

  1. Affixation – the formation of a new word with the help of affixes:

heart – heartless to do – to overdo

reason – unreasonable courage – discouragement

  1. Suffixation – the formation of a new word with the help of suffixes:

friend – friendship

speak – speaker

free – freedom

  1. Prefixation – the formation of a new word with the help of prefixes:

write – rewrite

husband – ex-husband

regular – irregular

  1. Conversion – the formation of a new word by bringing them a stem of this word into a different formal paradigm:

to fall – a fall

a slave – to slave

  1. Word-composition – the formation of a new word by combining two or more stems which occur in the language as free forms:

door-handle

house-keeper

  1. Shortening – the formation of a new word by cutting off a part of the word:

    1. initial (aphesis): telephone – phone, defend – fend;

    2. medial (syncope): spectacles – specs;

    3. final (apocope): advertisement – ad, vegetables – veg;

    4. both initial and final: influenza – flu, refrigerator – fridge.

  2. Blending – the formation of a new word by combining parts of two words:

    1. additive type: smog – sm(oke) and (f)og;

    2. restrictive type: telecast – television broadcast.

  3. Acronomy (graphical abbreviation) – the formation of a new word from the initial letters of a word combination:

  1. are read as ordinary English words: UNESCO – the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization;

  2. with the alphabetical reading: BBC – the British Broadcasting Corporation.

  1. Sound-interchanging – the formation of a new word due to an alteration in the phonemic composition of its roots:

    1. vowel-interchanging (ablaut): food – to feed, strong – strength;

    2. consonant-interchanging: advice – to advise

  2. Sound imitation (onomatopoeia) – the naming of an action or a thing by a more or less exact reproduction of the sound associated with it:

cock-a-doodle-do – ку-ка-ре-ку

    1. words denoting sounds produced by human beings in the process of communication or expressing their feelings: chatter, babble;

    2. words denoting sounds produced by the animals, birds, insects: moo, croak, buzz;

    3. words denoting sounds produced by water, the noise of metallic things, a forceful motion, movements: splash, clink, whip, swing.

  1. Back-formation – the formation of a new word by subtracting a real or supposed suffix from the existing words:

butler – to butle

  1. Distinctive stress – the formation of a new word by means of the shift of the stress in the source word:

'increase (n) - in'crease (v)

'absent (adj) - ab'sent (v)




Ad

final shortening

advertisement

brunch

blending (additive type)

breakfast + lunch

depth

sound-interchange (vowel-interchange)

deep – depth

to ape

conversion

ape (n) – to ape (v)

flower-pot

word-composition

flower + pot

flu

initial and final shortening

influenza

to baby-sit

word-composition

baby + sit

USA

acronomy (b):

the United States of America

to feed

sound-interchange (vowel-interchange)

food – to feed

friendliness

affixation

friendly – friendliness

to beg

back-formation

beggar – beg

early-riser

word-composition

early + riser

to speed

conversion

speed (n) – to speed (v)

radioactive

word-composition

radio + active

office-manager

word-composition

office + manager

snowflake

word-composition

snow + flake

girlish

suffixation

girl – girlish

to finger

conversion

finger (n) – to finger (v)

strength

sound-interchange (vowel-interchange)

strong – strength

to burgle

back-formation

burglar – to burgle

cab

final shortening

cabriolet – cab

unpredictable

affixation

to predict – unpredictable

VIP

acronomy (b)

Very Important Person




  1. Phraseology




    1. Phraseological units:

Phraseological unit

Translation

Explanation

Example

to cut the Gordian knot

разрубить гордиев узел

to deal with a difficult problem in a strong, simple and effective way

There was so much fighting between staff, she decided to cut the Gordian knot and sack them all.

shed crocodile tears

лить крокодильи слёзы

to show sadness that is not sincere

Political leaders shed crocodile tears while allowing the war to continue.

between two fires

между двух огней

Being attacked from two sources or sides simultaneously

He was between two fires and didn’t know how to act in such a difficult situation.

blue stocking

"синий чулок"

A woman with strong scholarly or literary interests

At university she was well-known as a blue stocking who could only be found in the library.

to beat about the bush

ходить вокруг да около

be deliberately ambiguous or unclear in order to mislead or withhold information

Instead of solving the problem he beat about the bush without saying anything clear.

a dog in the manger

собака на сене

a person who prevents others from using something he has no use for


After his feelings had gone away and they had split up, he went on being jealous of everybody, so his friends began to call him a dog in the manger.

a white elephant

собаки пятая нога; "белый слон"

something that has cost a lot of money but has no useful purpose

His present seemed to be a white elephant but Jerry smiled friendly as a polite person and expressed his gratitude.

to build castles in the air

строить воздушные замки

to fall into an unreal reverie

He was that kind of people who builds castles in the air without doing anything to achieve it in real life.

to keep one’s powder dry

держать порох сухим

be ready to do something

Mike always kept his powder dry to appear on time and profit by the occasion.




    1. Classification of phraseological units:




Phraseological unit

Translation

морочить кому-либо голову

pull someone’s leg

ходить по тонкому льду

be walking on thin ice

прийти к выводу

to come to a conclusion

светская беседа

exchange of civilities

читать между строк

to read between the lines

называть вещи своими именами

to call things by their right/proper names

to call a spade a spade

ходить вокруг да около

to beat about the bush

«синий чулок»

blue stocking

собака на сене

a dog in the manger

пускать пыль в глаза

to throw dust in eyes

между молотом и наковальней

between the devil and the deep blue sea; between the upper and nether millstone

полоскать грязное белье на людях

wash dirty linen in public

бабье лето

Indian summer

влюбиться

fall in love

    1. V.V. Vinogradov’s classification (according to the degree of idiomaticity):




Phraseological fusions

Phraseological unities

Phraseological combinations

pull someone’s leg

blue stocking

be walking on thin ice

to read between the lines

to call things by their proper names

a dog in the manger

to beat about the bush

to throw dust in eyes

between the devil and the deep blue sea

wash dirty linen in public


to come to a conclusion

exchange of civilities

fall in love

Indian summer




    1. N.N. Amosova’s classification (according to their contextual properties):




Phrasemes

Idioms

to come to a conclusion

exchange of civilities

fall in love

Indian summer


pull someone’s leg

blue stocking

be walking on thin ice

to read between the lines

to call things by their proper names

between the devil and the deep blue sea

wash dirty linen in public

to beat about the bush

a dog in the manger

to throw dust in eyes




    1. A.V. Koonin’s classification (according to semantic and functional properties):




Nominating

blue stocking

Indian summer

a dog in the manger

exchange of civilities

between the devil and the deep blue sea


Communicative

pull someone’s leg

be walking on thin ice

to read between the lines

to call things by their proper names

wash dirty linen in public

to beat about the bush

to throw dust in eyes

to come to a conclusion

fall in love




    1. A.I. Smirnitsky’s classification (according to their integrity distinction):




Idioms

Combinations

Set phrases

pull someone’s leg

blue stocking


to come to a conclusion

exchange of civilities

fall in love

Indian summer

be walking on thin ice

to read between the lines

to call things by their proper names

a dog in the manger

to beat about the bush

to throw dust in eyes

between the devil and the deep blue sea

wash dirty linen in public




  1. Regional varieties of English




    1. British spelling




American

British

analyze

analyse

catalog

catalogue

program

programme

harbor

harbour

pretense

pretence

inflexion

inflection

center

centre

check

cheque

color

colour

quarreled

quarrelled

vigor

vigour

woolen

woollen




    1. British and American variants:




Russian

British

American

кран

tap

faucet

киоск

kiosk

stand

шнурок для ботинок

shoe-lace

shoes-string

осень

autumn

fall

печенье

biscuits

cookies

шашки

draughts

checkers

правительство

government

administration

справочное бюро

inquiry bureau

inquiry office

урна для мусора

dustbin

trashcan

каникулы

holiday

vacation

брюки

trousers

pants

квартира

flat

apartment

грузовик

lorry

truck

бензин

petrol

gas

каша

porridge

oatmeal

очередь

queue

line

партер

stalls

orchestra

сани

sledge

sled

консервная банка

tin

can

конфеты

sweets

candy
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